The IBM 101 Electronic Statistical Machine, introduced in 1952, combines in one unit the functions of sorting, counting, accumulating, balancing, editing, and printing of summaries of facts recorded in IBM cards.
The 101 could sort cards based on multiple columns. For example, if a card had multiple 3-column test scores, the 101 could be wired to sort into pocket 0 those cards with no scores over 090, into pocket 1 those with one score over 090, and so on; logic limited only by the number of relays available.
A. Ross Eckler suggests the development of the 101, with functions similar to earlier multicolumn sorters and unit counters developed by the Census Bureau, was "apparently a direct result of the transfer to IBM of Lawrence Wilson who had served as chief of the Census Bureau's Machine Tabulation Division.
The following operations may be performed at the rate of 450 cards per minute:
- Sort IBM cards into numeric or alphabetic sequence
- Arrange cards into a desired pattern
- Check cards for consistency of coded information
- Check the accuracy of sorting
- Search cards for specific facts or combinations of facts
- Count cards for as many as 60 different classifications
- Print reports in final form on one or two printers
- Print group identification
- Print a check symbol on each line of a report to indicate that totals printed on that line cross-check
- Summary punch totals when one or two summary punches are connected to the 101.:p. 6
The operation of the 101 is directed by the use of a removable control panel.
IBM Devices often used in conjunction with an IBM 101 included:
for a System
The IBM 524 is a Duplicating Summary Punch, and two of them can be attached to an IBM 101.
- IBM 514 (Reproducing Punch)
- IBM 519 Document-Originating Machine
- IBM 521 Punch Unit
- IBM 523 Gang Summary Punch
- IBM 526 Printing Summary Punch
- IBM 528 Accumulating Reproducer
- IBM 529 Punch Unit
- IBM 541 Card Read Punch
- IBM 542 Card Read Punch
- IBM 549 Ticket Converter
- "IBM Card Card Equipment Summary (1957)" (PDF).
- Eckler, A. Ross (1972) The Bureau of the Census, Praeger, pp114-115
- IBM 524 Duplicating Summary Punch
- IBM 101 Electronic Statistical Machine - Reference Manual (PDF).
- "IBM 514".
- Alan D. Meacham (1961). Data Processing Equipment Encyclopedia. Gille Associates.
- "IBM Operator's Guide" (PDF).
- "IBM 523 Gang Summary Punch".
- dated from 1963 to 1974 IBM Sales Manual. IBM.
- "gangpunch - definition and meaning". Wordnik.com.
- John M. Carroll (2014). Computer Security. p. 404. ISBN 1483103013.
- IBM (1958). IBM Reference Manual: 101 Electronic Statistical Machine (PDF). A22-0502-0.