IMKO-1

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IMKO-1
Manufacturer Pravetz
Type Personal Computer
Release date 1979 (1979)
Introductory price 4190 Levs
Approx $2600
Media Floppy disks, Cassette tapes
Operating system Apple OS
CPU 6502 clocked at 1MHz
Memory 48KB-64KB RAM, 12KB ROM
Display 280x192 resolution, 6 on-screen colours out of a palette of 16
Dimensions 39x45x12cm
Successor Pravetz 82

The IMKO-1 (Bulgarian: Индивидуален микро компютър (ИМКО-1), Individualen Micro KOmputer, Individual micro computer) was the first Bulgarian personal computer, built in 1979 in Pravetz, Bulgaria. It was the first in the Pravetz series 8 range of computers. Like other computers in the series, it is an Apple II clone.

The development of the first Bulgarian micrcomputer started back in 1979 at the Institute for technical cybernetics and robotics. The first working samples were manufactured in 1980. The abbreviation IMKO means Individualen Mikro KOmputur (Individual Micro COmputer). This model is an analogue of Apple II Plus and only about 50 units were manufactured for testing purposes.

Start of production: 1980.
End of production: 1982.
Processor: 6502/1Mhz.
Memory (RAM): 48KB (with the possibility to extend to 64KB).
Memory (ROM): 12KB.
Disk drives: No disk drives available, only a cassette player port.
Operating system: None.
Screen resolution: Text mode 40x24 (columns/rows), graphics mode 280x192 pixels - 6 colours, 280x160 pixels + 4 text rows, 40x40 pixels + 4 text rows, 40x48 pixels in 16 colours.
Variations: None.
Notes: Manufactured as an experimental model at the Institute for cybernetics and robotics at the Bulgarian Academy of Science. It was well accepted due to its low price for its time as well as due to its universal features and ease of use. It was first presented to the foreign audience in 1981 at the symposium on robotics in England as part of the demonstration of a robot arm (ROBKO-01).
At that time the robots in Japan and the USA were controlled by minicomputers, not microcomputers like IMKO-1 and this demonstration was a real success as the whole system cost tens of times less than the Japanese or American analogues. As all computers of the Pravetz series this model has hardware Cyrillic support, but because the keyboard was using 7 bits for transmitting the character codes the Cyrillic letters were overlapping the lower case Latin letters and it was only possible to type with upper case Latin or Cyrillic letters.
Ports/slots: Cassette player port, 8 expansion slots. The zero slot was used for attaching extra memory up to the 64KB limit.
Manufacturer: ITCR - Sofia.
Price: N/A (never sold).

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