From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. For other uses, see Sofia (disambiguation).
Clockwise, from top left: Alexander Nevsky Cathedral • Church of St. George • Eagles' Bridge, Sofia • National Palace of Culture • Boyana Church • Ivan Vazov National Theatre • Statue of Sveta Sofia
Flag of Sofia
Coat of arms of Sofia
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Serdica, Sredetz (older names)[1]
Motto: Grows, but does not age[2]
(Расте, но не старее, Raste, no ne staree)
Sofia location within Bulgaria
Sofia location within Bulgaria
Sofia is located in Europe
Sofia location within Europe
Sofia is located in Earth
Sofia location within the Earth
Coordinates: 42°42′N 23°20′E / 42.70°N 23.33°E / 42.70; 23.33Coordinates: 42°42′N 23°20′E / 42.70°N 23.33°E / 42.70; 23.33
Country  Bulgaria
Province Sofia City
(by Thracians)
7000 years ago
 • Mayor Yordanka Fandakova (GERB)
 • City 492 km2 (190 sq mi)
 • Municipality/Province 1,344 km2 (519 sq mi)
Elevation 500–800 m (1,707–2,888 ft)
Population (31 December 2014)[3]
 • City Increase 1,228,282
 • Rank 17% of national
 • Density 2,496/km2 (6,460/sq mi)
 • Municipality/Province Increase 1,316,557
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 1000
Area code(s) (+359) 02
Car plate prefix СА, С, СВ

Sofia (/ˈsfiə/) (Bulgarian: София, Sofiya,[4][5]pronounced [ˈsɔfijɐ]) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria. Sofia is the 14th largest city in the European Union with population of more than 1.2 million people. The city is located at the foot of Vitosha Mountain in the western part of the country, within less than 50 kilometres (31 mi) drive from the Serbian border. It lies at the center of the Balkan peninsula and is the midway between the Black Sea and the Adriatic Sea, whereas the Aegean Sea is the closest to it.[6][7]

Sofia has been an area of human habitation since at least 7000 BCE[8] and is Europe's second-oldest city, having been founded 7000 years ago,[9][10][11][12][13] hence the motto of the city is "grows, but does not age". The city's earliest official mention was in the 7th century BCE.[11]

Many of the major universities, cultural institutions and commercial companies of Bulgaria are concentrated in Sofia.[14]

Sofia is Europe's most affordable capital to visit as of 2013.[15]


The feast day of Saint Sofia on September 17 is the official public holiday of the city.[16]
The seal of the City Council of Sredets in 1878

For the longest time the city possessed a Thracian name, derived from the tribe Serdi, who today are most often defined as a Thracian tribe,[4][6][17] whereas it is also speculated that the Serdi were Celts.[18] The Serdi and the name of emperor Marcus Ulpius Traianus (53 – 117 AD), prompted the Romans to give the city the combinative name of Ulpia Serdica;[19][20] It seems that the first written mention of Serdica was made during his reign and the last mention was in the 19th century in a Bulgarian text (САРДАКІИ, Sardaki). During the Romans civitas Serdenisium was mentioned the "brightest city of the Serdi" in official inscriptions. Sofia was originally a Thracian settlement called Serdica or Sardica, possibly named after the Celtic[1] tribe Serdi that had populated it. For a short period during the 4th century B.C., the city was possessed by Philip of Macedon and his son Alexander the Great. The city expanded, as turrets, protective walls, public baths, administrative and cult buildings, a civic basilica and a large amphitheatre called Bouleutherion, were built. When Emperor Diocletian divided the province of Dacia into Dacia Ripensis (on the banks of the Danube) and Dacia Mediterranea, Serdica became the capital of Dacia Mediterranea. The Edict of Toleration by Galerius was issued in 311 in Serdica by the Roman emperor Galerius, officially ending the Diocletianic persecution of Christianity. The Edict implicitly granted Christianity the status of "religio licita", a worship recognized and accepted by the Roman Empire. It was the first edict legalizing Christianity, preceding the Edict of Milan by two years. The city has been major throughout the past ever since Antiquity, when Roman emperor Constantine the Great was often referring to it as New Rome (My little Rome) and it nearly became a capital of the Eastern Roman Empire.[17]

Other of Sofia's names, Serdonpolis(Σερδών πόλις, "City of the Serdi") and Triaditsa(Τριάδιτζα, "Trinity"), were mentioned by Byzantine Greek sources or coins. The Slavic name Sredets (СРѢДЄЦЪ), which is related to "middle" (среда, "sreda") and to the city's earliest name, first appeared on paper in an 11th-century text. The city was called Atralissa by the Arab traveler Idrisi and Strelisa, Stralitsa or Stralitsion by the Crusaders.[21]

As opposed to the prevailing Slavic etymology among Bulgarian cities and towns the name Sofia comes from the Saint Sofia Church[22] and ultimately from the Egyptian word seba, meaning "wise".[23] The earliest works where this latest name is registered are the duplicate of the Gospel of Serdica, in a dialog between two salesmen from Dubrovnik around 1359, in the 14th-century Vitosha Charter of Bulgarian tsar Ivan Shishman and in a Ragusan merchant's notes of 1376.[24] In these documents the city is called Sofia, but at the same time the region and the city's inhabitants are still called Sredecheski (срѣдечьскои, "of Sredets"). The city became somehow popular to the Ottomans by the name Sofya (صوفيا), but Sredets remained in use among the local Bulgarians till the 20th century.


Vitosha Mountain seen from the National Palace of Culture's garden during the spring
Vitosha Mountain and the city after snowing
Summer lightning storms over Sofia

Sofia has an area of 492 km2, while Sofia City Province has an area of 1344 km2.[25] Sofia's development as a significant settlement owes much to its central position in the Balkans. It is situated in western Bulgaria, at the northern foot of the Vitosha mountain, in the Sofia Valley that is surrounded by the Balkan mountains to the north. The valley has an average altitude of 550 metres (1,800 ft). Unlike most European capitals, Sofia does not have any large rivers or bridges, but is surrounded by comparatively high mountains on all sides. Three mountain passes lead to the city, which have been key roads since antiquity, connecting the Adriatic Sea and Central Europe with the Black and Aegean Seas. A number of low rivers cross the city, including the Vladayska and the Perlovska. The Iskar River in its upper course flows near eastern Sofia. The city is known for its 49 mineral and thermal springs. Artificial and dam lakes were built in the twentieth century. The 1818 Sofia earthquake was a 6,0-7,2 Medvedev–Sponheuer–Karnik Scale earthquake, the 1858 earthquake was an 6,6 same scale earthquake though reaching up to 10 in parts such as Boyana, this was followed by a 7-8 MSK Sofia earthquake in 1917 and finally by the 2012 Pernik earthquake which was a 5.6 Mw (or 5.8 ML)[26] magnitude earthquake. The 2014 Aegean Sea earthquake was also noticed in the city.

A problem of air pollution of Sofia is its location in the Sofia valley which is surrounded by mountains on the sides and this reduces the ability of the air to self-clean. The air is polluted mostly by particulate matters and nitrogen oxides.[27] Sofia is the capital with most polluted air in the EU.[28]

The capital is within 125 kilometres (78 mi) drive from Plovdiv, Bulgaria's second largest city, 367 kilometres (228 mi) from Burgas and 425 kilometres (264 mi) from Varna, Bulgaria's major port-city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. The city is less than 200 kilometres (120 mi) from the borders with four countries: it is within 49 kilometres (30 mi) drive from the Serbian border, 106 kilometres (66 mi) from the Macedonian, from the Romanian border is within 174 kilometres (108 mi) through the ferryboat in Oryahovo but 190 kilometres (120 mi) through the New Europe Bridge and 175 kilometres (109 mi) away is the Greek border. The city is within less than 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) drive from fifteen national capitals: 212 kilometres (132 mi) from Skopje, 303 kilometres (188 mi) from Prishtine, 338 kilometres (210 mi) from Bucharest through ferryboat and 366 kilometres (227 mi) through the Danube Bridge, 375 kilometres (233 mi) from Belgrade, 522 kilometres (324 mi) from Tirana, 562 kilometres (349 mi) from Podgorica, 588 kilometres (365 mi) from Sarajevo, 740 kilometres (460 mi) from Budapest, 765 kilometres (475 mi) from Zagreb, 784 kilometres (487 mi) from Chişinău through ferryboat and 800 kilometres (500 mi) through the Danube Bridge, 790 kilometres (490 mi) from Athens, 908 kilometres (564 mi) from Ljubljana, 940 kilometres (580 mi) from Bratislava, 970 kilometres (600 mi) from Ankara and 988 kilometres (614 mi) from Vienna.[29]


Sofia has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with an average annual temperature of 10.6 °C (51.1 °F).

Winters are cold and snowy. In the coldest days temperatures can drop below −15 °C (5 °F), most notably in January. The lowest recorded temperature is −28.3 °C (−19 °F) (January 24, 1942).[30] Fog is not unusual, especially in the beginning of the season. On average, Sofia receives a total snowfall of 99 cm (39 in) and 60 days with snow cover.[31][32] The snowiest recorded winter was 1939/1940 with a total snowfall of 198 cm (78 in).[33] The record snow depth is 57 cm (22.4 in) (December 25, 2001).[34]

Summers are warm and sunny. In summer, the city generally remains slightly cooler than other parts of Bulgaria, due to its higher altitude. However, the city is also subjected to heat waves with high temperatures reaching or exceeding 35 °C (95 °F) in the hottest days, particularly in July and August. The highest recorded temperature is 41 °C (106 °F) (July 5, 2000 and July 24, 2007).[35][36] The hottest recorded summer was in 2012 with a daily average July temperature of 24.8 °C (76.6 °F).[37]

Springs and autumns in Sofia are relatively short with variable and dynamic weather.

The city receives an average precipitation of 581.8 mm (22.91 in) a year, reaching its peak in late spring and early summer when thunderstorms are not uncommon. The wettest recorded year was 2014 with a total precipitation of 1,066.6 mm (41.99 in).[38]

Climate data for Sofia (NIMH−BAS) 1981−2010 normals, extremes 1941−present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19
Average high °C (°F) 3.4
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.5
Average low °C (°F) −3.9
Record low °C (°F) −28.3
Average precipitation mm (inches) 33.2
Average snowfall cm (inches) 23.6
Average precipitation days 9 10 10 12 13 12 10 9 7 11 10 12 125
Average snowy days 7.2 6.3 5.8 1.4 0 0 0 0 0 0.8 3 7.2 31.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 87.8 114.3 159.6 182.2 229.6 257.7 302.1 288.3 220.1 163.6 105.5 66.1 2,177
Source #1: [39]
Source #2: precipitation days[40] and extremes[30][41][42][43][44]


Main article: History of Sofia

Prehistory and Antiquity[edit]

A restored city plan of Roman Serdica under Marcus Aurelius (161 – 180)

Sofia has a history of nearly 7000 years and it is the second oldest city in Europe according to the city's official website and other sources, though the meaning of the claim is unclear as in the world there were hardly any cities at the time. In the context, certainly the neolithic village in Slatina, dating to the 5th-6th millennium BC, is described.[9][10][12] Remains from another neolihic settlement around the National Art Gallery are traced to the 3rd-4th millennium BC, which has been the traditional center of the city ever since and is not changed today.[45] Sofia was originally a Thracian settlement populated by the tribe Serdi throughout the Bronze Age and the Antiquity. In the 8th century BCE, the tribe Serdi established a settlement[4][46] which prompted the city's earliest official mention in the 7th century BCE.[11] The findings lead to the conclusion that the area of the settlement was between TZUM, Sheraton Hotel and the Presidency.[45][47] In the 500s BC, the area became part of a Thracian tribal union, called the Odrysian kingdom, when another Thracian tribe appeared in the city, the Odrysses. For a short period the Thracian rule was possibly interrupted by the Achaemenid Empire and Macedonia.

Around BC 29, Serdica was conquered by the Romans, gradually becoming the most important Roman city of the region.[19][20] It became a municipium during the reign of Emperor Trajan (98–117). Serdica expanded, as turrets, protective walls, public baths, administrative and cult buildings, a civic basilica, an amphitheatre, a circus, the City Council (Boulé), a large forum, a big circus (theatre), etc. were built. Serdica was a significant midway city on the Roman road Via Militaris, connecting Singidunum and Byzantium.

In the 3rd century, it became the capital of Dacia Aureliana,[48] and when Emperor Diocletian divided the province of Dacia Aureliana into Dacia Ripensis (at the banks of the Danube) and Dacia Mediterranea, Serdica became the capital of the latter. Roman emperors Aurelian (215-275)[49] and Galerius (260-311)[50] were from Serdica. The city subsequently expanded for a century and a half, it became a significant political and economical centre, more so — it became one of the first Roman cities where Christianity was recognized as an official religion (under Galerius). The Edict of Toleration by Galerius was issued in 311 in Serdica by the Roman emperor Galerius, officially ending the Diocletianic persecution of Christianity. The Edict implicitly granted Christianity the status of "religio licita", a worship recognized and accepted by the Roman Empire. It was the first edict legalizing Christianity, preceding the Edict of Milan by two years. For Constantine the Great it was 'Sardica mea Roma est' (Serdica is my Rome). In 343 AD, the Council of Sardica was held in the city, in a church located where the current 6th century Church of Saint Sophia was later built.

The city was destroyed in the 447 invasion of the Huns.[51] It was rebuilt by Byzantine Emperor Justinian I. During the reign of Justinian it flourished, being surrounded with great fortress walls whose remnants can still be seen today.

Middle Ages, Renaissance and early modern history[edit]

Fresco, depicting Sebastocratoress Desislava in Boyana Church, 1259

Sofia first became part of the First Bulgarian Empire during the reign of Khan Krum in 809, after a long siege.[52] Afterwords, it grew into an important fortress and administrative centre. After the administrative reform by Khan Omurtag, Sofia became a center of Sredets province (Sredetski komitat, Средецки комитат). In the second half of 10th century the city was ruled by Komit Nikola and his sons, popular as "Komitopuli". One of them is Samuil, who became an Emperor of Bulgaria in 997.[53] After the fall of North-eastern Bulgaria under John I Tzimiskes' armies in 971, the Bulgarian Patriarch Damyan chose Sofia for his seat in the next year. After a number of unsuccessful sieges, the city fell to the Byzantine Empire in 1018, but once again was incorporated into the restored Bulgarian Empire at the time of Tsar Ivan Asen I.

From the 12th to the 14th century, Sofia was a thriving centre of trade and crafts. In the middle of 13th century sebastocrators of Sofia Kaloyan and Desislava were main donors to Boyana Church. Under their patronage the painters of Tarnovo Artistic School created realistic frescoes, depicting more than 240 human images and a total 89 scenes are with marked individuality, convincing psychological characteristics and vitality, which present the exceptional achievements of Bulgarian medieval culture. With their vital, humanistic realism they are a Renaissance phenomenon at its culmination phase in the context of the common-European art.[54][55] In 1382, Sofia was seized by the Ottoman Empire in the course of the Bulgarian-Ottoman Wars after a long siege. Around 1393 it became the seat of newly established Sanjak of Sofia.[56]

The city was occupied by Hungarian forces for a short time in 1443. After the failed crusade of Władysław III of Poland in 1443 towards Sofia, the city's Christian elite was annihilated and the city became the capital of the Ottoman province (beylerbeylik) of Rumelia for more than four centuries. In the 16th century, Sofia's urban layout and appearance began to exhibit a clear Ottoman style.

Sofia in mid-19th century

There were fountains, hamams (bathhouses), prominent churches such as Saint Sofia were converted into mosques and in total there were 11 big and over 100 small mosques by the 17th century,[57] of which only the Banya Bashi remains as a mosque today. During that time the town had a population of around 7,000.

The town was seized for several weeks by Bulgarian hajduks in 1599. In 1610 the Vatican established the See of Sofia for Catholics of Rumelia, which existed until 1715 when most Catholics had emigrated.[58] The town was the center of Sofia Eyalet (1826–1864). The Ottomans hanged in Sofia the Bulgarian revolutionary Vasil Levski in 1873.

Modern and contemporary history[edit]

The Allied bombing of Sofia in 1944

During the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78, Suleiman Pasha was going to burn the city, unless the foreign councils Leandre Legay, Vito Positano, Gabriel Almosnino and Josef Valdhart interceded for the salvation of the city. However this salvation did not apply to the Bulgarian citizens who faced executions.[59] Sofia was taken by Russian forces on January 4, 1878. It was proposed as a capital by Marin Drinov and was accepted as such on 3 April 1879. By the time of its liberation the population of the city was 11,649.[60] For a few decades after the liberation the city experienced large population growth mainly from other regions of the country. In 1900 the first electric bulb in the city was turned on.[61]

In the Second Balkan War Bulgaria was warring alone against five neighboring countries and the Romanian Army entered Vrazhdebna in 1913, then a village seven miles from Sofia, now a suburb,[62] which prompted Bulgaria to capitulate. In the following wars, Sofia was invaded by an at least nominally peaceful Soviet Red Army and was bombed by Allied US and UK aircraft in late 1943 and early 1944. Then 40,000 editions of books were destroyed along with the Capital Library and 12,656 more buildings, additionally over 2000 people died.

In 1925 a terrorist act of ultra-leftists failed their attempted assassination of the king but resulted in the destruction of a church and many victims. It took 20 years to 1945 when the communist Fatherland Front took power and executed several thousands of people. The transformations of Bulgaria into the People's Republic of Bulgaria in 1946 and into the Republic of Bulgaria in 1990 marked significant changes in the city's appearance. The population of Sofia expanded rapidly due to migration from the country. Whole new residential areas were built in the outskirts of the city, like Druzhba, Mladost and Lyulin. The Georgi Dimitrov Mausoleum, where a body had been preserved in a similar way to the Lenin mausoleum, was detonated in 1999.


Diurnal view, including the Largo, the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, the National Assembly, Sofia University, the building of BNT, Lake Ariana and Borisova gradina
Nocturnal view of the city

In Sofia there are 607,473 dwellings and 101,696 buildings. According to modern records 39,551 dwellings were constructed until 1949, 119,943 between 1950 and 1969, 287,191 between 1970 and 1989, 57,916 in the 90s and 102,623 between 2000 and 2011. Until 1949, 13,114 buildings were constructed and between 10,000-20,000 in each following decade.[63]

The outlook of Sofia combines a wide range of architectural styles, some of which are hardly compatible. These vary from Christian Roman architecture and medieval Bulgar fortresses to Neoclassicism and prefabricated Socialist-era apartment blocks (panelki). A number of ancient Roman, Byzantine and medieval Bulgarian buildings are preserved in the centre of the city. These include the 4th century Rotunda of St. George, the walls of the Serdica fortress and the partially preserved Amphitheatre of Serdica.

After the Liberation War, knyaz Alexander Battenberg invited architects from Austria–Hungary to shape the new capital's architectural appearance.[64]

Among the architects invited to work in Bulgaria were Friedrich Grünanger, Adolf Václav Kolář, Viktor Rumpelmayer and others, who designed the most important public buildings needed by the newly reestablished Bulgarian government, as well as numerous houses for the country's elite.[64] Later, many foreign-educated Bulgarian architects also contributed. The architecture of Sofia's centre is thus a combination of Neo-Baroque, Neo-Rococo, Neo-Renaissance and Neoclassicism, with the Vienna Secession also later playing an important part, but it is mostly typically Central European.

After the Second World War and the establishment of a Communist government in Bulgaria in 1944, the architectural line was substantially altered. Stalinist Gothic public buildings emerged in the centre, notably the spacious government complex around The Largo, Vasil Levski Stadium, the Cyril and Methodius National Library and others. As the city grew outwards, the then-new neighbourhoods were dominated by many concrete tower blocks, prefabricated panel apartment buildings and examples of Brutalist architecture. They still make Sofia's housing very high compared to post-Western block countries,

After the abolition of Communism in 1989, Sofia has witnessed the construction of whole business districts and neighbourhoods, as well as modern skryscraper-like glass-fronted office buildings, but also top-class residential neighbourhoods. Capital Fort Business Center will be the first skyscraper in Bulgaria with its 36 floors at 126 metres in length. However, the end of the old administration and centrally planned system also paved the way for chaotic and unrestrained construction, which continues to the present day.

Green areas[edit]

The city has an extensive green belt. Some of the neighbourhoods constructed after 2000 which are densely built-up often lack green spaces. There are four principal parks – Borisova gradina in the city centre and the Southern, Western and Northern parks. Several smaller parks, among which the City Garden and the Doctors' Garden, are located in central Sofia. The Vitosha Nature Park (the oldest national park in the Balkans)[65] includes most of Vitosha mountain and covers an area of 266 square kilometres (103 sq mi),[66] with roughly half of it lying within the municipality of Sofia. Vitosha Mountain is a popular hiking destination due to its proximity and ease of access via car and public transport. Two functioning cable cars provide year long access from the outskirts of the city. The mountain offers favorable skiing conditions during the winter when multiple ski slopes of various difficulty are made available. Access to the ski slopes is regulated, they are maintained daily and health and safety personnel is available to assist in case of injury. Skiing passes typically allow unlimited access to the ski slopes, cable cars and other transport facilities. Skiing equipment can be rented and skiing lessons are available.

Government and law[edit]

Composition of the City Council as a result of the 2011 election[67]
  Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria 33 seats (223 415 votes, 48,5%)
  Bulgarian Socialist Party 15 seats (103 427 votes, 22,4%)
  Blue Coalition 8 seats (49 791 votes, 10,8%)
  Attack 2 seats (14 754 votes, 3,2%)
  National Movement for Stability and Progress 2 seats (11 314 votes, 2,5%)
  Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization 1 seat (8389 votes, 1,8%)
  Total 61 seats

Sofia Municipality is identical to Sofia City Province, which is distinct from Sofia Province, which surrounds but does not include the capital itself. Besides the city proper, the 24 districts of Sofia Municipality encompass three other towns and 34 villages.[68] Districts and settlements have their own governor who is elected in a popular election. The assembly members are chosen every four years. The common head of Sofia Municipality and all the 38 settlements is the mayor of Sofia.[68] The current mayor Yordanka Fandakova was elected twice, once in 2009 and once in 2011, winning the latest election at first round with 247,140 votes (53.3%) when Socialist Party opponent Georgi Kadiev had 22.3% of the vote.[67]

Sofia as a capital is the location of all Bulgarian state authorities - executive, legislative, judiciary, the headquarters of all parties and the delegation of the European Commission. This includes the Parliament, the Presidency, the Council of Ministers and all the ministries, supreme courts and the Constitutional Court of Bulgaria.

# Subdivision Idle Popul. Extent
1 Bankya 10.4 9,186 Satellites
2 Vitosha 3.5 42,953 City/satellites
3 Vrabnitsa 4.6 47,417 City/satellites
4 Vazrazhdane 5.3 47,794 City
5 Izgrev 3.1 33,611 City
6 Ilinden 4.5 37,256 City
7 Iskar 3.9 69,896 City/satellites
8 Krasna polyana 9.2 65,442 City
9 Krasno selo 3.7 72,302 City
10 Kremikovtsi 5.8 23,599 City/satellites
11 Lozenets 3.3 45,630 City
12 Lyulin 5.4 120,897 City
13 Mladost 4.2 110,852 City
14 Nadezhda 3.8 77,000 City
15 Novi Iskar 4.5 26,544 Satellites
16 Ovcha kupel 3.8 47,380 City/satellites
17 Oborishte 2.8 36,000 City
18 Pancharevo 5.3 24,342 Satellites
19 Poduyane 4.5 85,996 City
20 Serdika 3.6 52,918 City
21 Slatina 4.1 65,772 City
22 Studentski 2.9 50,368 City
23 Sredets 4.0 41,000 City
24 Triaditsa 3.7 65,000 City
TOTAL 4.5 1,299,155
Source: NSI


Arts and entertainment[edit]

Sofia concentrates the majority of Bulgaria's leading performing arts troupes. Theatre is by far the most popular form of performing art, and theatrical venues are among the most visited, second only to cinemas. The oldest such institution is the Ivan Vazov National Theatre, which performs mainly classical plays and is situated in the very centre of the city.

The National Opera and Ballet of Bulgaria is a combined opera and ballet collective, established in 1891. However, it did not begin performances on a regular basis until 1909. Some of Bulgaria's most famous operatic singers, such as Nicolai Ghiaurov and Ghena Dimitrova, have made their first appearances on the stage of the National Opera and Ballet. The National Palace of Culture regularly hold classical concerts.

Bulgaria's largest art museums are located in the central areas of the city. The National Art Gallery holds a collection of works mostly by Bulgarian authors, while the National Gallery for Foreign Art displays exclusively foreign art, mostly from India, Africa, China and Europe. Its collections encompass diverse cultural items such as Ashanti Empire sculptures, Buddhist art, Dutch Golden Age painting, works by Albrecht Dürer, Jean-Baptiste Greuze and Auguste Rodin, among others. The crypt of the Alexander Nevsky cathedral holds a collection of Eastern Orthodox icons from the 9th to the 19th century. Other museums are the National Historical Museum with a collection of more than 600,000 items; the National Polytechnical Museum with more than 1,000 technological items on display; the National Archaeological Museum and the Museum of Natural History. The SS. Cyril and Methodius National Library houses the largest national collection of books and documents (1,714,211 books and some 6 million other documents)[69] and is Bulgaria's oldest cultural institute.

There is a growing number of theaters in Sofia, due to the rising audience interest to this form of art. Few of the most notable theaters are "National Theater Ivan Vazov", Drama Theater "Äleko Konstantinov", "Sofia Theater", and "Theater 199".

Cinema is the most popular form of entertainment. In recent years, cinematic venues have been concentrating in trade centres and malls, and independent halls have been closed. Mall of Sofia holds one of the largest IMAX cinemas in Europe. Most films are American productions, although European and domestic films are increasingly shown. Odeon (not part of the Odeon Cinemas chain) shows exclusively European and independent American films, as well as 20th century classics. Bulgaria's once thriving film industry, concentrated in the Boyana Film studios, has suffered a period of decay after 1990. A relative revival of the industry began after 2001. After the acquisition of Boyana Film by Nu Image, several moderately successful productions have been shot in and around Sofia, such as The Contract, The Black Dahlia, Hitman and Conan the Barbarian and Spartacus. The Nu Boyana Film studios have also hosted some of the scenes for The Expendables 2.

The city houses many cultural institutes such as the Russian Cultural Institute, the Polish Cultural Institute, the Hungarian Institute, the Czech and the Slovak Cultural Institutes, the Italian Cultural Institute, the French Cultural Institute, Goethe Institut, British Council, Instituto Cervantes, and the Open Society Institute, which regularly organise temporary expositions of visual, sound and literary works by artists from their respective countries.

Some of the biggest telecommunications companies, TV and radio stations, newspapers, magazines, and web portals are based in Sofia, including the Bulgarian National Television, bTV and Nova TV. Top-circulation newspapers include 24 Chasa and Trud.


Sofia is one of the most visited tourist destinations in Bulgaria alongside coastal and mountain resorts. Among its highlights is the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, one of the symbols of Bulgaria, constructed in the late 19th century. It occupies an area of 3,170 square metres (34,100 sq ft) and can hold 10,000 people. The city is also known for the Boyana Church, a UNESCO World Heritage site.

Sofia holds Bulgaria's largest museum collections, which attract tourists and students for practical studies. The National Historical Museum in Boyana district has a vast collection of more than 650,000 historical items dating from Prehistory to the modern era, although only 10,000 of them are permanently displayed due to the lack of space.[70] Smaller collections of items related mostly to the history of Sofia are in the National Archaeological Museum, a former mosque located between the edifices of the National Bank and the Presidency. Two natural sciences museums — the Natural History Museum and the Earth and Man — display minerals, animal species (alive and taxidermic) and rare materials. The Ethnographic Museum and the National Museum of Military History are other places of interest, holding large collections of Bulgarian folk costumes and armaments, respectively.

Vitosha Boulevard, also called Vitoshka, is a pedestrian zone with numerous cafes, restaurants, fashion boutiques, and luxury goods stores. Sofia's geographic location, in the foothills of the weekend retreat Vitosha mountain, further adds to the city's specific atmosphere.


A large number of sports clubs are based in the city. During the Communist era most sports clubs concentrated on all-round sporting development, therefore CSKA, Levski, Lokomotiv and Slavia are dominant not only in football, but in many other team sports as well. Basketball and volleyball also have strong traditions in Sofia. A notable local basketball team is twice European Champions Cup finalist Lukoil Akademik. The Bulgarian Volleyball Federation is the world's second-oldest, and it was an exhibition tournament organised by the BVF in Sofia that convinced the International Olympic Committee to include volleyball as an olympic sport in 1957.[71] Tennis is increasingly popular in the city. Currently there are some ten[72] tennis court complexes within the city including the one founded by former WTA top-ten athlete Magdalena Maleeva.[73]

Sofia applied to host the Winter Olympic Games in 1992 and in 1994, coming 2nd and 3rd respectively. The city was also an applicant for the 2014 Winter Olympics, but was not selected as candidate. In addition, Sofia hosted Eurobasket 1957 and the 1961 and 1977 Summer Universiades, as well as the 1983 and 1989 winter editions. In 2012, it hosted the FIVB World League finals.

The city is home to a number of large sports venues, including the 43,000-seat Vasil Levski National Stadium which hosts international football matches, as well as the Georgi Asparuhov Stadium and Lokomotiv Stadium, the main venues for outdoor musical concerts. Armeets Arena holds many indoor events and has a capacity of up to 19,000 people depending on its use. The venue was inaugurated on July 30, 2011, and the first event it hosted was a friendly volleyball match between Bulgaria and Serbia. There are two ice skating complexes — the Winter Sports Palace with a capacity of 4,600 and the Slavia Winter Stadium with a capacity of 2,000, both containing two rinks each.[74] A velodrome with 5,000 seats in the city's central park is currently undergoing renovation.[75] There are also various other sports complexes in the city which belong to institutions other than football clubs, such as those of the National Sports Academy, the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, or those of different universities. There are more than fifteen swimming complexes in the city, most of them outdoor.[76] Nearly all of these were constructed as competition venues and therefore have seating facilities for several hundred people.

There are two golf courses just to the east of Sofia — in Elin Pelin (St Sofia club) and in Ihtiman (Air Sofia club), and a horseriding club (St George club).


Population growth over the years
(The number is shown in thousands)

According to 2015 data, the city has a population of 1,228,282 and the whole Sofia Capital Municipality of 1,316,557.[3] The first census carried out in February 1878 by the Russian Army recorded a population of 11,694 inhabitants including 6,560 Bulgarians, 3,538 Jews, 839 Turks and 737 Romani.

The ratio of women per 1,000 men was 1,102. The birth rate per 1000 people was 12.3 per mille and steadily increasing in the last 5 years, the death rate reaching 12.1 per mille and decreasing. The natural growth rate during 2009 was 0.2 per mille, the first positive growth rate in nearly 20 years. The considerable immigration to the capital from poorer regions of the country, as well as urbanisation, are among the other reasons for the increase in Sofia's population. 4.8 people of every one thousand were wedded in 2009 (only heterosexual marriage is possible in Bulgaria) and the infant mortality rate was 5.6 per 1,000, down from 18.9 in 1980. According to the 2011 census, people aged 20–24 years are the most numerous group, numbering 133,170 individuals and accounting for 11% of the total 1,202,761 people. The median age is 38 though. According to the census, 1,056,738 citizens (87.9%) are recorded as ethnic Bulgarians, 17,550 (1.5%) as Romani (Gypsy), 6,149 (0.5%) as Turks, 9,569 (0.8%) belonged to other ethnic groups, 6,993 (0.6%) do not self-identify and 105,762 (8.8%) remained with undeclared affiliation.[77] This statistic should not necessarily be taken at face value due to conflicting data – such as for the predominantly Roma neighbourhood of Fakulteta, which alone may have a population of 45,000.[78]

According to the 2011 census, throughout the whole municipality some 892,511 people (69.1%) are recorded as Eastern Orthodox Christians, 10,256 (0.8%) as Protestant, 6,767 (0.5%) as Muslim, 5,572 (0.4%) as Roman Catholic, 4,010 (0.3%) belonged to other faith and 372,475 (28.8%) declared themselves irreligious or did not mention a faith. The data says that roughly a third of the total population have already a university degree. The unemployment rate is around 10%, a large share of unemployed people are with higher education. Additionally another third of the same population aged 15–64 is not economically active. Three quarters of the inhabitants there, or 965,328, have television at home, while 836,435 (64.8%) have computer and internet. Out of 464,865 homes, 432,847 have connection to the communal sanitary sewer, while 2,732 do not have any. Of these 864 do not have any water supply and 688 have other than communal.[63]

Sofia was declared the national capital in 1879. One year later, in 1880, it was the fifth-largest city in the country after Plovdiv, Varna, Ruse and Shumen. Plovdiv remained the most populous Bulgarian town until 1892 when Sofia took the lead. The city is the hot spot of internal migration, the capital population is increasing and is around 17% of the national,[79] thus a small number of people with local roots remain today, they dominate the surrounding rural suburbs and are called Shopi. Shopi speak one of the transitional South Slavic dialects, along with Torlakian, sharing features with both eastern (Bulgarian and Macedonian) and western (Serbo-Croatian) branches,[80] although they are given non-Slavic origin through the ancient Thracian Serdi, the founders of the city.[81]


Edifice of the Bulgarian National Bank

Sofia is the economic heart of Bulgaria and home to most major Bulgarian and international companies operating in the country, as well as the Bulgarian National Bank and the Bulgarian Stock Exchange. The city and its surrounding Yugozapaden NUTS II planning region have a PPS GDP of €18,400,[82] which makes it the most developed region in the country. In 2008, the average per capita annual income was 4,572 leva ($3,479).[83] For the same year, the strongest sectors of the city's economy in terms of annual production were manufacturing ($5.5 bln.), metallurgy ($1.84 bln.), electricity, gas and water supply ($1.6 bln.) and food and beverages ($778 mln.).[84] Economic output in 2011 amounted to 15.9 billion leva, or $11.04 billion.[85] The average monthly wages paid amount to EUR 550, possibly excluding taxes, the highest in Bulgaria and the lowest among EU capitals.[86]

After World War II and the era of industrialisation under socialism, the city and its surrounding areas expanded rapidly and became the most heavily industrialised region of the country.[87] The influx of workers from other parts of the country became so intense that a restriction policy was imposed, and residing in the capital was only possible after obtaining Sofianite citizenship.[87] However, after the political changes in 1989, this kind of citizenship was removed.

Increasingly, Sofia is becoming an outsourcing destination for multinational companies, among them IBM, Hewlett-Packard, SAP, Siemens, Software AG.[88] Bulgaria Air, PPD, the national airline of Bulgaria, has its head office on the grounds of Sofia Airport.[89] From 2007 to 2011, the city attracted a cumulative total of $11,6 billion in foreign direct investment.[85]

Up until 2007 Sofia experienced rapid economic growth. In 2008, apartment prices increased dramatically, with a growth rate of 30%.[90] In 2009, prices fell by 26%.[91]

In January 2015 Sofia was ranked 30th out of 300 global cities in terms of combined growth in employment and real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in 2013-2014. This was the highest rank amongst cities in Southeast Europe.[92] The real GDP (PPP) per capita growth was 2.5% to $33,105 (28,456 euro) and the employment went up by 3.4% to 962,400 in 2013-2014.[93]

Transport and infrastructure[edit]

With its developing infrastructure and strategic location, Sofia is a major hub for international railway and automobile transport. Three of the ten Pan-European Transport Corridors cross the city: IV, VIII and X.[94] All major types of transport (except water) are represented in the city. The Central Railway Station is the primary hub for domestic and international rail transport. Sofia has 186 kilometres of railway lines.[85] Sofia Airport handled 3,815,158 passengers in 2014.[95]

Public transport is well-developed with bus (2,380 km (1,479 mi) network),[96] tram (308 km (191 mi)) network,[97] and trolleybus (193 km (120 mi) network),[98] lines running in all areas of the city,[99][100] although some of the vehicles are in a poor condition. The Sofia Metro became operational in 1998, and now has two lines and 34 stations.[101] As of 2012, the system has 39 km (24 mi) of track. Six new stations were opened in 2009, two more in April 2012, and eleven more in August 2012. Construction works on the extension of the first line are underway and it is expected to reach the airport by 2014. A third line is currently in the late stages of planning and it is expected that its construction starts in 2014. This line will complete the proposed subway system of three lines with about 65 km (40 mi) of lines.[102] The master plan for the Sofia Metro includes three lines with a total of 63 stations.[103] In recent years the marshrutka, a private passenger van, began serving fixed routes and proved an efficient and popular means of transport by being faster than public transport but cheaper than taxis. As of 2005 these vans numbered 368 and serviced 48 lines around the city and suburbs.[94] There are around 13,000 taxi cabs operating in the city.[104] Low fares in comparison with other European countries, make taxis affordable and popular among a big part of the city population.

Tsarigradsko shose, one of the busiest boulevards in Sofia

Private automobile ownership has grown rapidly in the 1990s; more than 1,000,000 cars were registered in Sofia after 2002. The city has the 4th-highest number of automobiles per capita in the European Union at 546.4 vehicles per 1,000 people.[105] The municipality was known for minor and cosmetic repairs and many streets are in a poor condition. This is noticeably changing in the past years. There are different boulevards and streets in the city with a higher amount of traffic than others. These include Tsarigradsko shose, Cherni Vrah, Bulgaria, Slivnitsa and Todor Aleksandrov boulevards, as well as the city's ring road, where long chains of cars are formed at peak hours and traffic jams occur regularly.[106] Consequently, traffic and air pollution problems have become more severe and receive regular criticism in local media. The extension of the underground system is hoped to alleviate the city's immense traffic problems.

Sofia has an extensive district heating system based around four combined heat and power (CHP) plants and boiler stations. Virtually the entire city (900,000 households and 5,900 companies) is centrally heated, using residual heat from electricity generation (3,000 MW) and gas- and oil-fired heating furnaces; total heat capacity is 4,640 MW. The heat distribution piping network is 900 km (559 mi) long and comprises 14,000 substations and 10,000 heated buildings.


One of the lecturing halls in the Rectorate of Sofia University

Sofia concentrates a significant portion of the national higher education capacity, including 109,000 university and college students[107] and 22 of Bulgaria's 51 higher education establishments.[108] These include four of the five highest-ranking national universities - Sofia University (SU), University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy, the Technical University of Sofia, University of National and World Economy and the University of Mining and Geology.[109] Sofia University was founded in 1888.[110] More than 20,000 students[111] study in its 16 faculties.[112] A number of research and cultural departments operate within SU, including its own publishing house, botanical gardens,[113] a space research centre, a quantum electronics department,[114] and a Confucius Institute[115] Rakovski Defence and Staff College, the National Academy of Arts, and Sofia Medical University are other major higher education establishments in the city.[109]

There are 5 primary, 77 middle and 187 secondary schools, of all 77 are private. Education institutions include 13 specialized for children with disabilities, 8 art schools, 22 professional colleges. 35 professional high schools, 25 profiled high schools and 4 sport schools.[116] The "elite" secondary language schools provide education in a selected foreign language. These include the First English Language School, Sofia High School of Mathematics, 91st German Language School, 164th Spanish Language School, and 9th French Language School. Some of them provide a language certificate upon graduation, while the 9th French Language School has exchange programs with a number of lycées in France and Switzerland, such as the Parisian Collège-lycée Jacques-Decour. The American College of Sofia, a private secondary school which developed from a school founded by American missionaries in 1860, is among the oldest American educational institutions outside of the US.[117]

Other institutions of national significance, such as the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS) and the SS. Cyril and Methodius National Library are located in Sofia. BAS is the centrepiece of scientific research in Bulgaria, employing more than 4,500 scientists in various institutes, including the Bulgarian Space Agency.

Twin cities[edit]

Sofia is twinned with:[citation needed]


Serdica Peak on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Serdica.



See also[edit]


  1. ^ Sofia, Bulgaria, SoloGuides
  2. ^ "Sofia through centuries". Sofia Municipality. Retrieved 2009-10-16. 
  3. ^ a b Population and Demographic Processes in 2014 (Final data), National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria 2015
  4. ^ a b c Editors of Britannica. "Sofia". Britannica. 
  5. ^ "Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia". Britannica Educational Publishing. 
  6. ^ a b Lauwerys, Joseph (1970). Education in Cities. Evan's Brothers. ISBN 0-415-39291-8. 
  7. ^ Rogers, Clifford (2010). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology 1. Oxford University Press. p. 301. ISBN 9780195334036. 
  8. ^ Ghodsee, Kristen (2005). The Red Riviera: Gender, Tourism, and Postsocialism on the Black Sea. Duke University Press. p. 21. 
  9. ^ a b [1]Sofia official website
  10. ^ a b One+ (1 ed.). Cornell University: Meeting Professionals International. 2008. 
  11. ^ a b c Business Central Europe (7 ed.). Northwestern University: Economist Group. 2000. 
  12. ^ a b John G. Kelcey; Norbert Müller. Plants and Habitats of European Cities. Czech Republic; Germany - University of Applied Sciences Erfurt: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-89684-7. 
  13. ^ Masters, Tom (2007). Eastern Europe. Lonely Planet. p. 138. 
  14. ^ Internet Hostel Sofia, Tourism in Sofia. Retrieved Jan, 2012
  15. ^ Clark, Jayne. "Is Europe's most affordable capital worth the trip?". USA Today. 
  16. ^ [2]. Sofia official website
  17. ^ a b Grant, Michael (211). The Emperor Constantine. Hachette. 
  18. ^ "The Cambridge Ancient History", Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond, ISBN 0-521-22717-8, 1992, p. 600: "In the place of the vanished Treres and Tilataei we find the Serdi for whom there is no evidence before the first century BC. It has for long being supposed on convincing linguistic and archeological grounds that this tribe was of Celtic origin"
  19. ^ a b World and Its Peoples. 2010. 
  20. ^ a b Irina Florov, Nicholas Florov (2001). Three-thousand-year-old Hat. Michigan University: Golden Vine Publishers. p. 303. ISBN 0968848702. 
  21. ^ Erwin Anton Gutkind. International history of city development, (8 ed.). Michigan University: Free Press of Glencoe. 
  22. ^ "София" (in Bulgarian). Мила Родино. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  23. ^ Dr. Molefi Kete Asante. "n African Origin of Philosophy: Myth or Reality?". City Press. Retrieved 29 August 2015. 
  24. ^ Encyclopedia Americana (25 ed.). Pennsylvania State University: Grolier Incorporated. 1999. p. 878. ISBN 0717201317. 
  25. ^ "District Sofia-city". Guide Bulgaria. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  26. ^ Bulgarian National Seismological Data Center, Area: Pernik, 2012-05-22 00:00:31, Lat: 42.6; Lon: 23; Depth: 10km, Mag: 5.8
  27. ^ Mediapool
  28. ^ Feinstaub: Bukarest zweitschmutzigste Hauptstadt der EU, 16 May 2012
  29. ^ "Sofia". Google Maps. Retrieved 2015-08-13. 
  30. ^ a b stringmeteo
  31. ^ stringmeteo
  32. ^ stringmeteo
  33. ^ stringmeteo
  34. ^ stringmeteo
  35. ^ freemeteo
  36. ^ freemeteo
  37. ^ stringmeteo
  38. ^ stringmeteo
  39. ^ stringmeteo
  40. ^ climatedata eu
  41. ^ climatebase ru
  42. ^ Station name: Sofia
  43. ^ stringmeteo
  44. ^ freemeteo
  45. ^ a b History
  46. ^ Murray, Lorraine (2013). Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia. Britannica Educational Publishing. 
  47. ^ Ivanov, Rumen (2006). Roman cities in Bulgaria. 
  48. ^ Wilkes, John (2005). "Provinces and Frontiers". In Bowman, Alan K.; Garnsey, Peter; Cameron, Averil. The Cambridge ancient history: The crisis of empire, A.D. 193-337. The Cambridge ancient history 12. Cambridge University Press. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-521-30199-2. 
  49. ^ Saunders, Randall Titus (1992). A biography of the Emperor Aurelian (AD 270-275). Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Dissertation Services. pp. 106–7. 
  50. ^ Eutropius. Breviarivm historiae romanae, IX, 22
  51. ^ A New Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, Mythology and ... - Sir William Smith, Charles Anthon - Google Книги
  52. ^ Theophanes Confessor. Chronographia, p.485
  53. ^ Павлов, П., Векът на цар Самуил, Sofia, Изток - Запад, 2013, ISBN 619152502-8
  54. ^ Мавродинов, Никола (1973). Боянската църква и нейните стенописи (in Bulgarian). София: Народна просвета. 
  55. ^ Ecker, Gerhard (1984). Bulgarien. Kunstdenkmäler aus vier Jahrtausenden von den Thrakern bis zur Gegenwart. (in German). Köln: DuMont Buchverlag. 
  56. ^ Godisnjak. Drustvo Istoricara Bosne i Hercegovine, Sarajevo. 1950. p. 174. Санџак Софија Овај је санџак основан око г. 1393. 
  57. ^ "Sofia - Trip around Sofia". Balkan tourist, 1968. 
  58. ^  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Sardica". Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company. 
  59. ^ Krestovskiy, cit., pp. 479-480
  60. ^ Kiradzhiev, Svetlin (2006). "Sofia. 125 years a capital. 1879–2004". "Guttenberg". ISBN 978-954-617-011-8
  61. ^ Mohailova, Tihomria. In 1900 the first electric lamp was turned on on the streets of Sofia. Novinar
  62. ^ Hall (2000), p. 97.
  63. ^ a b 2011 census, Sofia-capital (PDF) (23 ed.). Sofia: National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria. 2012. p. 37 117 132 190 193 196. 
  64. ^ a b Collective (1980). Encyclopedia of Figurative Arts in Bulgaria, volume 1. Sofia: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. pp. 209–210. 
  65. ^ "National parks in the world" (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  66. ^ "Vitosha Mountain". Retrieved 2014-04-29. 
  67. ^ a b "2011 Election". Central Electionary Comission. 
  68. ^ a b "District Mayors". Sofia Municipality. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  69. ^ Фондове и колекции, Cyrl and Methodius National Library (in Bulgarian)
  70. ^ Колекции, National Historical Museum (in Bulgarian)
  71. ^ "BVA-News". Archived from the original on 2008-02-20. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  72. ^ "Sofia municipality — Tennis courts". Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  73. ^ "Тенис Клуб Малееви". Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  74. ^ "Skate rinks in Sofia". Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  75. ^ " — History of the Sofia velodrome". Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  76. ^ "Swimming pools in Sofia (including Spa centers)". Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  77. ^ "Population". National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria, 2011. 
  78. ^ Romani isolated,, 11 December 2007 (Bulgarian)
  79. ^ NSI. Retrieved July, 2015
  80. ^ Strnadel, Leslie (2012). Bulgaria (Other Places Travel Guide). p. 118. 
  81. ^ [3].(Marinov, 1978). Retrieved July, 2015
  82. ^ "Regional gross domestic product (PPS per inhabitant), by NUTS 2 regions". Eurostat. Retrieved 17 October 2013. 
  83. ^ "Sofia in Figures 2009, p.53. Retrieved on 20 March 2012.
  84. ^ Sofia in Figures, p.106
  85. ^ a b c "Sofia (capital)". National Statistical Institute regional statistics. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013. 
  86. ^ Average monthly salary in Bulgaria reaches EUR 400, Bulgarian National Radio
  87. ^ a b The capital's changing face, The Sofia Echo
  88. ^ Invest in Sofia
  89. ^ "Contacts." Bulgaria Air. Retrieved on 10 May 2010.
  90. ^ "Bulgaria Housing Market Favors Buyers but Far Away from Collapse". Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  91. ^ "Bulgaria Residential Property Prices Down by 26% in Q4 y/y". Retrieved 2010-01-30. 
  92. ^ "Sofia ranks 30th in GDP/capita, employment growth 2013-2014 global report". Retrieved 2015-01-22. 
  93. ^ "Global Metro Monitor An Uncertain recovery" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-01-22. 
  94. ^ a b Sofia infrastructure from the official website of the Municipality (Bulgarian)
  95. ^ "Sofia Airport Handled a Record Number of Passengers for 2013 (in Bulgarian)". Retrieved 2015-01-21. 
  96. ^ "History of the bus network in Sofia". Retrieved 2012-08-30. 
  97. ^ "History of the tramway network in Sofia". Retrieved 2012-08-30. 
  98. ^ "History of the trolleybus network in Sofia". 1941-02-14. Retrieved 2012-08-30. 
  99. ^ "Public transport Sofia — official website" (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  100. ^ "Transport Company Bulgaria— official website" (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2009-08-21. 
  101. ^ "Българска национална телевизия - Новини (Bulgarian National Television - News)" (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  102. ^ "Metropolitan Sofia Web Place". Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  103. ^ "General Scheme". Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  104. ^ "National Federation of the Taxi Drivers in Bulgaria. Regional Member Sofia". Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  105. ^ Sofia in Figures, p.26
  106. ^ "Fines for bad repair work – 'Dnevnik' newspaper". Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  107. ^ [4]. NSI
  108. ^ "Accredited Higher Schools in Bulgaria". Ministry of Education, Youth and Science. Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  109. ^ a b "Bulgarian universities". Webometrics Ranking of World Universities. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  110. ^ "Official website of the Sofia university — History". Sofia University. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  111. ^ "Sofia University aims to attract more foreign students" (in Bulgarian). Akademika. 14 June 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  112. ^ "University Faculties". Sofia University. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  113. ^ "Independent structures of SU". Sofia University. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  114. ^ "Faculty of Physics structure". Sofia University. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  115. ^ "University Centres". Sofia University. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  116. ^ Registry of schools, Ministry of Education of Bulgaria
  117. ^ American College of Sofia Website - History
  118. ^ "Kardeş Kentleri Listesi ve 5 Mayıs Avrupa Günü Kutlaması [via]" (in Turkish). Ankara Büyükşehir Belediyesi - Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 
  119. ^ "Bratislava City – Twin Towns". © 2003–2009 Retrieved 7 July 2009. 
  120. ^ "Sister cities of Budapest" (in Hungarian). Official Website of Budapest. Retrieved 1 July 2009. 
  121. ^ "Prague Partner Cities" (in Czech). © 2009 Magistrát hl. m. Prahy. Retrieved 2 July 2009. 
  122. ^ "Shanghai, Sofia sign intent agreement to become sister cities". Retrieved 27 January 2015. 
  123. ^ Macedonia's Skopje, Bulgaria's Sofia to Become Sister Cities. Novinite 2015
  124. ^ "Tel Aviv sister cities" (in Hebrew). Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality. Retrieved 1 July 2009. 
  125. ^ "Twinning Cities: International Relations" (PDF). Municipality of Tirana. Retrieved 2009-06-23. 
  126. ^ "Twinning Cities: International Relations. Municipality of Tirana". Retrieved January 25, 2008. 
  127. ^ "Yerevan - Partner Cities". Yerevan Municipality Official Website. © 2005—2013 Retrieved 2013-11-04. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Gigova, Irina. "The City and the Nation: Sofia’s Trajectory from Glory to Rubble in WWII," Journal of Urban History, March 2011, Vol. 37 Issue 2, pp 155–175; the 110 footnotes provide a guide to the literature on the city
  • Sofia in Figures 2009, annual report of the National Statistical Institute

In Bulgarian[edit]

External links[edit]