|Ikarus IK 2|
|Ikarus IK 2|
|Designer||Kosta Sivcev, Ljubomir Ilic,|
|First flight||22 April 1935|
|Primary users||Royal Yugoslav Air Force
Air Force of the Independent State of Croatia
The Ikarus IK-2 was a 1930s high-wing, all-metal, single seat, monoplane fighter aircraft of indigenous design built for the Royal Yugoslav Air Force. The IK-2 was designed by Kosta Sivčev and Ljubomir Ilić, who saw the desirability of a home-developed aircraft industry in their country, whose aerial forces had up to that point been supplied by machines from abroad.
Design and development
The prototype, designated the IK-L1, whose design was ordered in 1934 from Ikarus A.D., was delivered for testing in 1935. The aircraft was powered by a Hispano-Suiza 12Ycrs inline engine. The forward-firing armament consisted of a 20 mm HS-404 cannon mounted under the engine, and two 7.92 mm Darne machine guns, mounted under and to each side of the engine. The design was similar to the Polish PZL P.8, sharing its Pulawski wing (gull-wing) design, giving the pilot an excellent view. The wing on each side was braced with two struts; the fixed conventional landing gear was spatted and mounted off the wing struts. The fixed tailwheel was also spatted. The pilot was installed aft of the wing in an enclosed cockpit. The horizontal stabilizer on each side was braced from below with two rigid braces from the lower tailcone, and tied from above with two flying wires from the vertical stabilizer. The three-bladed propeller was manually adjustable in pitch.
Captain Leonid Bajdak, a biplane advocate, tested the IK-1 in flight. During a full range of tests on the third flight the aircraft failed to pull out of a power dive and crashed. Bajdak bailed out and survived but claimed the IK-1 was not suitable as a fighter plane. Investigation of the wreckage disclosed that the failure was due to negligence in sewing a seam on one of the fabric-covered wings, and therefore a decision was made to proceed with the second prototype, designated IK-2. The second prototype had metal-skinned wings and a shallower cooling radiator. The IK-2 was ready for test in June 1936. A new test pilot, Dobnikar, performed the preliminary flight tests, including a mock battle against a Hawker Fury biplane fighter, flown by Captain Bajdak. The IK-2 outperformed the biplane in all respects, thereby confirming the hopes of the young designers.
Based upon results of preliminary testing, the Royal Yugoslav Air Force ordered a production batch of 12 IK-2 fighters, which were all delivered in 1937. When German forces invaded Yugoslavia on 6 April 1941, the only unit of the Yugoslav Air Force armed with the IK-2 was the 4th fighter regiment, composed of 33rd and 34th air force groups stationed at Bosanski Aleksandrovac airfield, in northwest Bosnia. The 4th fighter regiment was equipped with 18 Hawker Hurricanes and eight Ikarus IK-2 fighter aircraft.
Rovine airfield, situated north of Banja Luka, was the base of the Yugoslav 8th bomber regiment and its 24 Bristol Blenheim I bombers. During a German attack on the base on 7 April, five IK-2s together with five Hawker Hurricanes engaged German Messerschmitt 109 fighter aircraft. In the ensuing dogfight, the Yugoslav fighters managed to repel the 27 attacking German fighters, destroying two in the process at the cost of two Hurricanes and one IK-2 For the rest of the short conflict IK-2s were used for strafing advancing German columns and on several occasions they scrambled in pursuit of German reconnaissance aircraft, but to no effect. At the end of the brief campaign the four surviving IK-2s were overhauled at the Ikarus aircraft plant in Zemun before being transferred by the Germans to the newly formed Air Force of the Independent State of Croatia.
A proposed development of the IK-2 was the IK-4, a two seat reconnaissance monoplane, but it was never ordered.
- IK-L1 : First prototype.
- IK-02 : Second prototype
- IK-2 : Single-seat fighter aircraft.
- IK-4 : Proposed two-seat reconnaissance aircraft. Not built.
Specifications (Ikarus IK-2)
- Crew: 1
- Length: 7.88 m (25 ft 10 in)
- Wingspan: 11.4 m (37 ft 5 in)
- Height: 3.42 m (11 ft 3 in)
- Wing area: 18 m2 (190 sq ft)
- Empty weight: 1,502 kg (3,311 lb)
- Gross weight: 1,857 kg (4,094 lb)
- Powerplant: 1 × Hispano-Suiza 12Ycrs V-12 liquid-cooled piston engine, 642 kW (861 hp)
- Propellers: 3-bladed adjustable pitch
- Maximum speed: 435 km/h (270 mph; 235 kn) at 5,000 m (16,404 ft)
- Cruising speed: 250 km/h (155 mph; 135 kn)
- Range: 700 km (435 mi; 378 nmi)
- Service ceiling: 12,000 m (39,370 ft)
- Wing loading: 107 kg/m2 (22 lb/sq ft)
- Ikarus MM-2, a Yugoslav single engine low-wing monoplane two-seat training aircraft.
- Rogožarski IK-3, a Yugoslav single engine low-wing monoplane single-seat interceptor fighter.
- Zmaj Fizir FP-2, a Yugoslav single-engine, two-seater biplane
- Rogožarski R-100, a Yugoslav single-engined, single-seat parasol winged aircraft
- Rogožarski PVT, a Yugoslav single-engined, two-seat parasol winged aircraft
- Related development
- Ikarus IK-4
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- Green, William. War Planes of the Second World War, Volume Four: Fighters. London: MacDonald & Co.(Publishers) Ltd., 1961 (sixth impression 1969). ISBN 0-356-01448-7.
- Grujic, Zlatomir. Airforce of Serbia and Yugoslavia 1901-1994 Belgrade: Military book, 1997. ISBN 86-335-0019-1.
- Oštrić, Šime I. and Janić, Čedomir J. "Ik Fighters (Yugoslavia: 1930-40s)" Aircraft in Profile, Volume 13 (nos. 241-246). Windsor, Berkshire, UK: Profile Publications Ltd., 1973, p. 169-193. ISBN 0-85383-022-3.
- Janić, Čedomir; O. Petrović (2011). Short History of Aviation in Serbia. Beograd: Aerokomunikacije. ISBN 978-86-913973-2-6.
- Јанић, Чедомир; О. Петровић: Век авијације у Србији 1910-2010 225 значајних летјелица. Београд: Аерокомуникације.(2010) ISBN 978-86-913973-0-2.
- Петровић, Огњан М. „Војни аероплани Краљевине СХС/Југославије (Део I : 1918 – 1930.)“ Лет - Flight (2/2000.).(YU-Београд: Музеј југословенског ваздухопловства) 2: стр. 21-84. ISSN: 1450-684X.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ikarus aircraft.|
- „Ikarus IK-2 – Royal Story“, by Nenad M. Miklusev (p 14 on English text)
- Ikarus IK-2 1/72 scale by Mark Davies (English)
- http://www.airwar.ru/enc/fww2/ik2.html (Russian)