Ilocano numbers

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Ilocano has two number systems: one is native and the other is derived from Spanish. The systems are virtually used interchangeably. Yet, the situation can dictate which system is preferred.

Typically, Ilocanos use native numbers for one through 10, and Spanish numbers for amounts of 10 and higher.

Specific time is told using the Spanish system and numbers for hours and minutes, for example, Alas dos (2 o'clock).

For dates, cardinal Spanish numbers are the norm; for example, 12 (dose) ti Julio (the twelfth of July).

As with other roots in the language, numbers can undergo various forms of agglutination.


Cardinal numbers are those used in counting.

Number Ilocano Ilocano-Spanish Spanish
one maysa uno uno
two dua dos dos
three tallo tres tres
four uppat kuatro cuatro
five lima singko cinco
six innem sais seis
seven pito siete siete
eight walo otso ocho
nine siam nuebe nueve
10 sangapulo[1][2] dies diez
11 sangapulo ket maysa onse once
12 sangapulo ket dua dose doce
13 sangapulo ket tallo trese trece
14 sangapulo ket uppat katorse catorce
15 sangapulo ket lima kinse quince
16 sangapulo ket innem diesisais diez y seis, dieciseis
17 sangapulo ket pito diesisiete diez y siete, diecisiete
18 sangapulo ket walo diesiotso diez y ocho, dieciocho
19 sangapulo ket siam diesinuebe diez y nueve, diecinueve
20 duapulo[1] bainte veinte
21 duapulo ket maysa baintiuno veinte y uno, veintiuno
30 tallopulo treinta treinta
40 uppat a pulo kuarenta cuarenta
50 limapulo singkuenta cincuenta
60 innem a pulo sesenta sesenta
70 pitopulo setenta setenta
80 walopulo otsenta ochenta
90 siam a pulo nobenta noventa
100 sangagasut[2][3] sien,[4] siento cien,[4] ciento
101 sangagasut ket maysa sientoiuno ciento y uno
500[5] limagasut kinientos quinientos
1 000 sangaribo[2][6] mil mil
10 000 sangalaksa[2][7] dies mil diez mil
100 000 sangagasut a laksa sien mil cien mil
1 000 000 sangariwriw[2][8] milion millón

Numbers are connected to their nouns using the ligature a/nga.

maysa a botelia one bottle
innem a riwriw a tao six million people


To form the ordinal number (second, third, etc.), except for first, maika- is prefixed to the cardinal form. Note the exceptional forms for third, fourth and sixth.

Cardinal Ordinal Gloss
maysa umuna (past: immuna) first
dua maikadua second
tallo maikatlo third
uppat maikapat fourth
lima maikalima fifth
innem maikanem sixth
pito maikapito seventh
walo maikawalo eighth
siam maikasiam ninth
sangapulo maikasangapulo tenth


With the group numbers (pulo, gasut, ribo, laksa and riwriw), infixing <in> indicates division.

Unit Gloss Aggregate Gloss
pulo ten pinullo by the tens, by the decade
gasut hundred ginasut by the hundreds
ribo thousand rinibo by the thousands
laksa ten thousand linaksa by the ten-thousands, by the myriad
riwriw million riniwriw by the millions

Aggregate numbers have already been introduced: sangapulo, sangaribo, etc. Each is prefixed with sanga-. To form other groups, other numbers, and units of length, time or capacity can be used with sanga-. The alternate form is sangka-.

Unit Gloss Aggregate Gloss
pulo ten sangapulo ten
lima five sangalima a group of five
igup swallow sangaigup a gulp
iwa slice sangaiwa a slice of
lamut in mouth sangalamut mouthful


Distributives are formed by prefixing sag- plus redupication of the first CV (light reduplication) of the cardinal form or the unit. Distributives express so many each, so many a piece. Note the irregular forms for one each, three each, four each and six each.

Cardinal Distributive Gloss
maysa saggaysa one each, a piece
dua sagdudua two each, a piece
tallo saggatlo three each, a piece
uppat sagpapat four each, a piece
lima saglilima five each, a piece
innem sagninem six each, a piece
pito sagpipito seven each, a piece
walo sagwawalo eight each, a piece
mano sagmamano how many/much each, a piece
doliar sagdodoliar a dollar each, a piece
Saggatlokami. We take three each.
Sagdodoliarda. They are one dollar each.

When used with pami(n)-, sagpami(n)-, the result is a distributive multiplicative: so many times each.

Sagpaminduakami a napan a nabuya diay sine. We each saw the movie twice.


Indefinite numbers are formed by prefixing sumag- and CV reduplication of the first syllable of the cardinal form. In addition, to the cardinal numbers, sumag- can be used with the interrogative mano How much/many?.

Cardinal Indefinite Gloss
dua sumagdudua about two
tallo sumaggatlo about three
uppat sumagpapat about four
mano sumagmamano about how much/many


Limitatives express no more, no less than what the root number or aggregate specifies. It is formed by reduplicating the CVC (heavy reduplication) of the first syllable of the cardinal number or root form. sanga-/sangka- may be reduplicated, sangsanga-/sangsangka-, also to express limitation.

Cardinal Limitative Gloss
maysa maymaysa only one
dua dudua only two
tallo taltallo only three
uppat up-uppat only four
sangaigup sangsangaigup only one gulp
Sangsangaigup ti nainumko I drank one gulp.


These adverbial numbers are formed by prefixing mami(n)- to the cardinal form. Note the forms for once, twice, three times/thrice. Perfect form: nami(n)-.

Cardinal Multiplicative Gloss
maysa maminsan once
dua mamindua two times, twice
tallo mamitlo three times, thrice
uppat mamimpat four times
lima maminlima five times
adu mamin-adu often, many times
Maminduakanto a mapan. You will go twice.
Mamimpitok a nabuya. I've watched it seven times.

The multiplicatives can be limited by maminpi-/mamipin- (Perf: naminpi-/namipin-).

Cardinal Limited Multiplicative Gloss
maysa maminpinsan only once
dua maminpindua only two times, twice
tallo maminpitlo only three times, thrice
uppat maminpimpat only four times
lima maminpinlima only five times

The multiplicatives can be made ordinal with kapami(n)-. The resulting form is treated as a nominal and takes ergative agents.

Cardinal Limited Multiplicative Gloss
maysa kapaminsan only time
dua kapamindua second time
tallo kapamitlo third time
uppat kapamimpat fourth time
lima kapaminlima fifth time
Kapaminlimana ti agbuya iti dayta a pelikula.
This is her fifth time to see that film.

Nakapamin- prefixed to numbers behaves as an adverb.

Nakapaminduana nga agpadawat iti kuarta.
He solicited twice for money.


The denominator in fractions is prefixed by pagka-. Numbers such as sangapulo ten, sangagasut hundred, etc. drop the sanga- prefix before taking the prefix.

Cardinal Denominator Gloss
tallo pagkatlo third
innem pagkanem sixth
sangagasut pagkagasut hundredth
maysa a pagkatlo one third
lima a pagkagasut 5 percent


Divisional numbers are formed by prefixing agka- and denote into how many parts something is divided. The perfective is nagka-.

Agkawalonto ti "apple pie". The apple pie will be divided into eight (pieces).
Nagkawalo ti "apple pie". The apple pie was divided into eight (pieces).

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Literally ten is one group of ten and twenty is two tens, etc.
  2. ^ a b c d e The numbers ten, hundred, thousand, ten thousand, hundred thousand and one million begin with sanga- a group of. Multiples above that do not and are treated like units; for example, dua a riwriw two million, NOT *dua a sangariwriw.
  3. ^ Similar to the tens, sangagasut is literally one group of a hundred, etc.
  4. ^ a b Cien and Sien are used when only when meaning exactly 100. Ciento and Siento are used in conjunction with 101 and above.
  5. ^ Five hundred is added here because of its exceptional formation in Spanish.
  6. ^ Root: ribo; 2 000 is dua a ribo, etc. Note the explicit use of the ligature a
  7. ^ Root: laksa. Twenty thousand is dua a laksa, lit. two ten thousands.
  8. ^ Root: riwriw