The Intersil 6100 family consisted of a 12-bit microprocessor (the 6100) and a range of peripheral support and memory ICs developed by Intersil in the mid-1970s. The microprocessor recognised the PDP-8 instruction set. As such it was sometimes referred to as the CMOS-PDP8. Since it was also produced by Harris Corporation, it was also known as the Harris HM-6100. The Intersil 6100 was introduced in the second quarter of 1975, and the Harris version in 1976. By virtue of its CMOS technology and associated benefits, the 6100 was being incorporated into some military designs until the early 1980s.
The 6100 family was produced using CMOS rather than the bipolar and NMOS technologies used by its contemporaries (Z80, 8080, 6800, 9900, etc.). As a result of its CMOS technology and low clock speeds (8 MHz max. for the Harris HM-6100A), it had relatively low power consumption (less than 100 mW at 10V/2 MHz) and could be operated from a single supply over the wide range of 4-11V. Thus, it could be used in high reliability embedded systems without the need for any significant thermal management, if the rest of the system was also CMOS.
The 6100 was available to military specification and since it was dual sourced by Intersil and Harris, it was used in some military products as a low power alternative to the 8080, 6800 etc. Although it had a very simple instruction set and architecture, it was eminently suitable for use in systems that had previously used discrete logic circuits and even relay based controllers.
Intersil sold the integrated circuits commercially through 1982 as the IM6100 family. It was not priced competitively, and the offering failed. The IBM PCs in 1981 cemented the doom of the CMOS-8s by making a legitimate, well-supported small microprocessor computer.
Although this family of ICs had less logic than many competitors, and could have had smaller silicon and therefore undersold competitors, it used CMOS, then a larger technology, and failed.
The 6100 had a 12 bit CPU and closely emulated the PDP-8 (See PDP-8 for a more complete discussion). It had three primary registers: PC (program counter), 12-bit AC (accumulator), and MQ. All two-operand instructions read the AC and MQ and wrote back to the AC. There was no stack pointer; subroutines returned to their callers by jumping back into the main code, typically by storing the return address in the first word of the subroutine itself.
Conditionals in the 6100 only allowed the next instruction to be skipped. Branches were constructed with a conditional and a following jump. There was only one maskable interrupt. When the interrupt was tripped, the CPU stored the current PC in 0000, and then jumped to the location stored in 0001. The interrupt could be disabled or enabled using the IOF and ION (or SKON) instructions.
The 6100 had a 12-bit data/address bus, limiting RAM to only 4K words (6 kB). Memory references were 7-bit, offset either from address 0, or from the PC page base address (obtained by setting the seven least significant bits of PC to zero). Memory could be expanded using the optional 6102 support chip, which added three address lines and thus expanded memory to 32K words (48 kB) in the same way that the PDP-8/E expanded the PDP-8. The 6102 had two internal registers, IFR (instruction frame) and DFR (data), that offset the 4K page when the CPU accessed memory.
Versions and supporting hardware
Intersil offered a variety of related chips to support 6100 systems. The IM6100 CPU was a straight-8 (basic PDP-8 without memory mapping hardware). The IM6101 PIE (Programmable Interface Element) was a basic PDP-8 I/O port. The IM6102 MEDIC (Memory Extension, DMA Controller, Interval Timer) converted an IM6100 into something resembling a PDP-8/E's CPU. The IM6103 PIO (Parallel Input-Output Port), and the IM6402 or IM6403 UART were basic PDP-8 I/O devices on ICs.
A selection of these components were offered as the Intersil 6801 CMOS Family Sampler Kit with the 6960 – Sampler PC Board, a single-board system including the IM6100 CPU, IM6101 PIE, the IM6312 ODT (Octal Debugging Technique) Monitor ROM, three 256x4 CMOS RAMs and a UART IM6403.
The basic 6100 was later upgraded to the 6120, which had the 6102 memory controller built-in.