Pontifical Irish College
|Irish Coláiste Pontaifiúil na nGael|
|Latin: Pontificum Collegium Hibernorum
Italian: Pontifico Collegio Irlandese
|Motto||Ut Christiani Ita et Romani Sitis|
|Rector||Msgr Ciaran O'Carroll|
|Nickname||Irish College Rome|
The Pontifical Irish College is a Roman Catholic seminary for the training and education of priests, in Rome.
Foundation and early history
Towards the close of the sixteenth century, Pope Gregory XIII had sanctioned the foundation of an Irish college in Rome, and had assigned a large sum of money as the nucleus of an endowment. But the pressing needs of the Irish chieftains made him think that, under the circumstances, the money might as well be used for religion by supplying the Irish Catholics with the sinews of war in Ireland as by founding a college for them at Rome.
The project was revived in 1625 by the Irish bishops, in an address to Pope Urban VIII. Cardinal Ludovisi, who was Cardinal Protector of Ireland, resolved to realize at his own expense the desire expressed to the pope by the Irish bishops. A house was rented opposite Sant' Isodoro and six students went into residence 1 January 1628. Eugene Callanan, archdeacon of Cashel, was the first rector, Father Luke Wadding, OFM being a sort of supervisor. Cardinal Ludovisi died in 1632; he was of a princely family with a large patrimony, and he made provision in his will for the college; it was to have an income of one thousand crowns a year; a house was to be purchased for it; and he left a vineyard as Castel Gandolfo where the students might pass their villeggiatura. The cardinal's will directed that the college should be placed under the charge of the Jesuits. Both the heirs and Wadding suspected that provision and disputed it; a protracted lawsuit was finally decided in 1635 in favour of the Jesuits.
Under the Jesuits
On 8 February 1635, the Jesuits took charge of the college, and governed it until 1772. A permanent residence was secured, which became the home of the Irish students until 1798, and is still the property of the college; it has given its name to the street in which it stands. The Jesuits found eight students before them; one of these, Philip Cleary, after a brilliant academic course, left for the mission in Ireland in 1640, and suffered death for his faith ten years later. The first Jesuit rector became general of the Society; he was succeeded by Father James Forde who was succeeded in 1637 by Father William Malone, a combatant in controversy with Archbishop Usher.
In 1650 Monsignor Scarampo of the Oratory, on return from his embassy to the Kilkenny Confederation, brought with him two students to the Irish College; one was Peter Walsh, who became an Oratorian; the other was Oliver Plunkett, who was kept in Rome as professor at Propaganda until his appointment to the see of Armagh in 1670. John Brennan, one of Plunkett's contemporaries, also became a professor at Propaganda; whence he was appointed Bishop of Waterford, and then Archbishop of Cashel. Soon after came several remarkable students — Ronin Maginn; James Kusack, Bishop of Meath; Peter Creagh, successively Bishop of Cork and Cloyne, and Archbishop of Dublin.
In the earliest part of the eighteenth century, one of the students, Roch MacMahon, made his name in Irish history as Bishop of Clogher; another, Hugh MacMahon, Archbishop of Armagh, asserted the precedence of that see to Dublin in a work of great learning, "Jus Primatiale Armacanum". Richard Reynolds at the end of his course was kept in Rome at tutor to the children of the Pretender; James Gallagher became Bishop of Kildare. The college had never more than eight students at a time, and had often so few as five.
In other ways, however, the college had its trials and changes. It came into financial difficulties. The villa at Castel Gandolfo was sold to the Jesuit novitiate in 1667, and yet the difficulties did not disappear. It was thought, moreover, that too large a proportion of the able students found a vocation in the Society of Jesus, in spite of the purpose of the college, which trained them for the mission in Ireland. Complaints as to administration were also made, and a Pontifical Commission was deputed to make an official inquiry. Its report was not favourable to the Jesuits, and in September, 1772, the college was withdrawn from their control.
The college now passed from the care of the Jesuits, and an Italian priest, Abbate Luigi Cuccagni, was made rector. He was a man of acknowledged ability. Hurter says that he was the ablest of the controversialists who wrote against the form of Jansenism which was patronized by Emperor Joseph II, supported by the synod of Pistoia, and had its citadel in the University of Pavia. He is the author of several works which were in high repute in those days; and from the Irish College he edited the "Giornale Ecclesiastico di Roma", then the leading Catholic periodical in Rome. The first prefect of studies appointed under his rectorate was Pietro Tamburini, who afterwards became the leader of Jansenism at Pavia. During his prefectship he delivered his lectures on the Fathers which were afterwards published at Pavia. He had to leave the college after four years.
The rectorate of Cuccagni came to an end in 1798, when the college was closed by order of Napoleon; and thus we come to the close of another period in its history. During those twenty-six years it quite equalled its previous prestige. For, although its number of students was sometimes as low as three, it sent forth John Lanigan the historian, who promoted directly from being a student of the Irish college to the chair of Scripture at Pavia; Dr. Charles O'Connor, author of "Scriptores Rerum Hibernicarum" and several others works; James R. Clerigh, who never became a priest, but was a well-known Catholic leader in Ireland a century ago; Dr. Ryan, Bishop of Ferns; Dr. McCarthy, Coadjutor Bishop of Cork; Dr. Blake, Bishop of Dromore.
Dr. Blake, who was the last student to leave the college at its dissolution in 1798, returned a quarter of a century later to arrange for its revival, which was effected by a brief of Pope Leo XII, dated 18 February 1826. He became the first rector of the restored college, and among the first students who sought admission was Francis Mahoney of Cork, known to the literary world as Father Prout. Having set the college well to work, Dr. Blake returned to Ireland, and was succeeded by Dr. Boylan, of Maynooth, who soon resigned and died in 1830. He was succeeded by a young priest, later Cardinal Cullen. Within two years of his rectorate he had forty students in the college; and to provide proper accommodations for the increasing numbers who sought admission, the present building with the Church of Sant'Agata dei Goti was given to the college in 1835 by Gregory XVI. Two years later Dr. Cullen purchased a fine country villa as a summer home, amid the olive groves which cover the slopes of the Sabine hills near Trivolli. Amongst the distinguished students who passed through the college during Dr. Cullen's rectorate were: Rev. C. P. Meehan; Dr. Edmund O'Reilly, S.J.; Bishop Croke; Cardinal Moran; Archbishop Dunne of Brisbane.
Dr. Cullen was succeeded by Dr. Kirby, known for his holiness of life. He governed the college for more than forty years. His successor was Michael Kelly, later coadjutor to the Archbishop of Sydney.
In 2011, under orders from Pope Benedict, Cardinal Timothy Dolan, Archbishop of New York, led a root and branch review of all structures and processes at the college. He was assisted in the visitation report by the then Archbishop of Baltimore in the US and now Cardinal Edwin O’Brien and Msgr Francis Kelly of the Northern American College in Rome. The report was highly critical of the college, as a result of which three Irish members of the staff were sent home and a fourth resigned. In 2012 four Irish archbishops, Cardinal Seán Brady, Archbishop of Armagh; the Archbishop of Dublin, Dr Diarmuid Martin; the Archbishop of Tuam, Dr Michael Neary, and the Archbishop of Cashel, Dr Dermot Clifford, were sent a copy of the visitation report by the Vatican. A response prepared for them said "a deep prejudice appears to have coloured the visitation and from the outset and it led to the hostile tone and content of the report".
Rectors of the College
- Msgr Ciaran O'Carroll (2011–present)
- Msgr Liam Bergin (2001–2011)
- Msgr John Fleming(1993–2001) - Vice Rector (1987-1993)
- Dr Seán Brady (1987–1993) - Vice Rector (1980–1987)
- Msgr Dr Dominic Joseph Conway (1965-1968) - Spiritual Director (1951-1965)
- Msgr Michael J. Curran (1930–1939) - Vice Rector(1920–1930)
- Dr John O'Hagan (1919–1930) - Vice Rector(1904–1919)
- Dr Michael O'Riordan (1905–1919)
- Dr Michael Kelly (1894–1901)
- Dr Tobias Kirby (1850–1891)
- Dr Paul Cullen (1831–1850)
- Dr Christopher Boylan (1828–1830)
- Dr Michael Blake (1826–1828)
The College today
The Pontifical Irish College is located in Via dei Santi Quattro, #1. It serves as a residence for clerical students from all over the world. Every year over 250 Irish couples choose the college chapel as a means to marry in Rome. It organises events for the Irish and wider international community who are currently residing in Rome and has over the years become an unofficial centre for Irish visitors to Rome seeking advice and information.
The Rector of the Irish College, as of 2012[update], is Monsignor Ciaran O'Carroll, of the Archdiocese of Dublin. Every Sunday morning there are Sacramental classes for English speaking children preparing for their First Holy Communion and Confirmation which are conducted in English by the students of the college.
Important contemporary visitors to the college include Pope John Paul II, British Prime Minister Tony Blair. Irish President Mary McAleese. addressed the college on 6 November 2003, the 375th anniversary of the founding of the college.
The college formerly produced an annual report, The Coelian.
- Archives of the Irish College, Rome;
- La Relazione del Cardinale Marefoschi;
- Hugo von Hurter, Nomenclator;
- Giornale Ecclesiastico di Roma (1780–1798)
- Ufficio Catechistico Diocesano, Diocese of Acireale
- Pontificio Collegio Irlandese
- "Irish College staff in Rome given no right of reply"
- "Vatican report critical of culture and ethos of Irish College in Rome"
- Ufficio Catechistico Diocesano, Diocese of Acireale.