Born in Moscow to a Russian-Jewish family, she later traveled to Geneva in the 1890s to study chemistry at Geneva University. Her early research included the development of a process to remove sulfur and phosphorus from acetylene. Her first article on the derivatives of benzophenone, coauthored by German chemist Fritz Ullman, was published in 1897. She also researched and wrote a paper (published in 1904) on using copper as a catalyst for the preparation of a phenyl derivative of thiosalicylic acid, a process known as the Ullmann reaction. This modification to previous forms of the method was a great improvement, and was extremely helpful for laboratory-scale preparations. She coordinated on other forms of chemistry research with her husband, Fritz Ullmann, in what they called the Ullmann-Goldberg collaborative.
In 1905, both Goldberg and Ullman moved to Technische Hochschule in Berlin. Goldberg's research, along with that of the Ullmann-Goldberg collaborative, was also a part of Germany's synthetic dye industry. Their research helped with the creation of the synthetic alizarin industry, or the process of replacing natural dye obtained from madder. In 1909, Goldberg also collaborated with Hermann Friedman to review German patents under BASF (Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik) and Bayer & Co. Farbenfabriken, providing notes on preparation for 114 dyes.
In 1910, Goldberg married Ullman. In 1923, they moved back to Geneva when Ullman accepted a faculty position at Geneva University.
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