Jamaican Maroon spirit-possession language
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Jamaican Maroon spirit-possession language, or simply Maroon Spirit language, is a ritual language. It is an English-based creole with a strong Akan component. (It is distinct from usual Jamaican Creole, being similar to the creoles of Suriname such as Sranan.) Maroon Spirit language is used by Jamaican Maroons (largely Coromantees) while possessed by the spirits of ancestors during Coromantee (Kromanti) ceremonies or when addressing those who are possessed.
- Bilby, Kenneth (1983). "How the "Older Heads" Talk: A Jamaican Maroon Spirit Possession Language and Its Relationship to the Creoles of Surname and Sierra Leone". New West Indian Guide/Nieuwe West-Indische Gids 57 (1/2): 37–88.
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