Jamaican Maroon spirit-possession language
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Jamaican Maroon spirit-possession language, or simply Maroon Spirit language, is a ritual language. It is an English-based creole with a strong Akan component. (It is distinct from usual Jamaican Creole, being similar to the creoles of Sierra Leone (Krio) and Suriname such as Sranan and Ndyuka language. Maroon Spirit language is used by Jamaican Maroons (largely Coromantees) while possessed by the spirits of ancestors during Coromantee (Kromanti) ceremonies or when addressing those who are possessed.
The language was brought along by the Maroon population from Trelawny town to Nova Scotia in 1796 where they were sent in exile. They eventually traveled to Sierra Leone in 1800. Their creole language highly influenced the local creole language that evolved into present day Krio.
- Bilby, Kenneth (1983). "How the "Older Heads" Talk: A Jamaican Maroon Spirit Possession Language and Its Relationship to the Creoles of Suriname and Sierra Leone". New West Indian Guide/Nieuwe West-Indische Gids 57 (1/2): 37–88.
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