James Mills (ship owner)
|New Zealand Parliament|
Mills was born in Wellington and raised in Dunedin. He worked for Johnny Jones, starting as a shop assistant and working his way up to managing Jones' Harbour Steam Company. After Jones' death in 1869 he became the leading trustee of his estate. Between 1869 and 1871 he built up a shareholding in the Harbour Steam Company until he was able to control the company. He floated the Union Steam Ship Company of New Zealand in 1875 with backing from Scottish shipbuilder Peter Denny in return for orders for his Dumbarton shipyard. The Union Company (as it was known) became a major shipping line, with a near-monopoly on trans-Tasman shipping, and was referred to as the "Southern Octopus". By 1914 it had 75 ships. It was the biggest shipping line in the southern hemisphere and New Zealand's largest private-sector employer. Mills sold the Union Company to the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company (P&O) in 1917.
He represented Waikouaiti on the Otago Provincial Council in 1870, and again from 1873 to 1876. Later, he represented the Port Chalmers electorate in Parliament from a by-election in 1887 to 1893, when he retired.
- McLean, Gavin (20 November 2013). "Mills, James". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand.
- Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer. p. 222.
- Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. p. 220. OCLC 154283103.
- "Mount Mills". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
- Biography in the 1966 Encyclopaedia of New Zealand
- Ships of the Union Company by Gavin McLean (1989, GP Government Print, Wellington) ISBN 0-477-00016-9