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James S. Harlan (1861–1927) was an American lawyer and commerce specialist, son of U.S. Supreme Court Justice John Marshall Harlan and uncle of Justice John Marshall Harlan II. He was born at Evansville, Indiana, graduated from Princeton University in 1883, and studied law in the office of Melville W. Fuller in 1884-88. Admitted to the bar in 1886, he practiced law in Chicago as a member of the firms of Gregory, Booth, and Harlan, and Harlan and Harlan. In 1901-03 he served as Attorney General of Puerto Rico. He became a member in 1906, and chairman in 1914, of the United States Interstate Commerce Commission.