Jay L. Garfield

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Jay Lazar Garfield (born 13 November 1955) is a professor and researcher who specializes in Tibetan Buddhism. He also specializes on the philosophy of mind, cognitive science, epistemology, metaphysics, philosophy of language, ethics, and hermeneutics. He is currently Doris Silbert Professor in the Humanities at Smith College, Professor of Philosophy at the University of Melbourne, Visiting Professor of Philosophy and Buddhist Studies at Harvard Divinity School, and Adjunct Professor of Philosophy at the Central University of Tibetan Studies.[citation needed]

Academic career[edit]

Garfield received an A.B. from Oberlin College in 1975, and a Ph.D. from the University of Pittsburgh in 1986, where he worked with Wilfred Sellars and Annette Baier. At the Central University of Tibetan Studies in India, he studied Nagarjuna with Geshe Yeshe Thabkhas.

He taught from 1980-1995 at Hampshire College, from 1996-1998 at the University of Tasmania, and since 1999 at Smith College.

He is editor in chief of the journal Sophia, and is on the editorial boards of Philosophical Psychology, Journal of Indian Philosophy and Religion, Australasian Philosophical Review, Philosophy East and West, American Institute of Buddhist Studies/Columbia Center for Buddhist Studies/Tibet House, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, and the Journal of Buddhist Philosophy.

Garfield was the inaugural Kwan Im Thong Hood Cho Temple Professor of Humanities and Head of Studies, Philosophy, at Yale-NUS from 2013-2016. He said, "This Professorship has given me the opportunity of a lifetime – working with motivated, creative and talented students and colleagues and working in a community committed to building something entirely new, an Asian liberal arts college with a truly global curriculum."[1] During his professorship at Yale-NUS, Garfield was one of six scholars who participated in a conference with the 14th Dalai Lama on "Mapping the Mind: A Dialogue between Modern Science and Buddhist Science."[2]

Controversy over "If Philosophy Won't Diversify"[edit]

Garfield has long been a critic of the narrow approach of Western philosophers. He has noted that "people in our profession are still happy to treat Western philosophy as the 'core' of the discipline, and as the umarked case. So, for instance, a course that addresses only classical Greek philosophy can be comfortably titled 'Ancient Philosophy,' not 'Ancient Western Philosophy,' and a course in metaphysics can be counted on to ignore all non-Western metaphysics. A course in Indian philosophy is not another course in the history of philosophy, but is part of the non-Western curriculum."[3] Because of his knowledge of Buddhism and commitment to encouraging the study of Asian philosophy, Garfield was invited to be the keynote speaker at a conference on non-Western philosophical traditions organized by graduate students in philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania in 2016. However, he was "outraged" that there were only "one or two" members of the regular faculty in the department who attended the event, because he felt that this showed a lack of support for their own students' interest in non-Western philosophy.[4]

Garfield discussed this issue with another speaker at the conference, Bryan W. Van Norden, and they wrote an editorial that appeared in The Stone column of The New York Times in May of that year, entitled "If Philosophy Won't Diversify, Let's Call It What It Really Is."[5] In this editorial, they state: "we have urged our colleagues to look beyond the European canon in their own research and teaching." However, "progress has been minimal." Consequently, so long as "the profession as a whole remains resolutely Eurocentric," Garfield and Van Norden "ask those who sincerely believe that it does make sense to organize our discipline entirely around European and American figures and texts to pursue this agenda with honesty and openness. We therefore suggest that any department that regularly offers courses only on Western philosophy should rename itself 'Department of European and American Philosophy.'"

The article received 797 comments in just 12 hours. (None of the other Stone columns that month had over 500 comments.) Garfield later explained, "I woke up to all this email in my inbox [with] people asking, 'Are you okay?' 'Do you need to talk?'" Garfield soon realized that his colleagues were expressing concern for his well-being because so many of the comments on the article expressed "vitriolic racism and xenophobia. And some of it was clearly by philosophers and students of philosophy.'"[6] One typical comment was that Western philosophy deserves precedence because "there is a particular school of thought that caught fire, broke cultural boundaries, and laid the foundation of modern science (Does anyone want to fly in a plane built with non-western math?) and our least oppressive governmental systems."[7] On the other hand, there were also many supportive comments: "Hear! Hear! Inclusion is the order of the day. ... More wisdom from more perspectives — what could be better? We have so much to learn from each other, if only we listen."[8]

Garfield and Van Norden's article was almost immediately translated into Chinese,[9] and over twenty blogs in the English-speaking world have commented or hosted discussions, including Reddit.[10] Garfield and Van Norden's piece has continued to provoke strong reactions. Some have applauded their call for greater diversity in the US philosophical canon.[11][12] In addition, their piece has been featured in several recent essays arguing for greater diversity in philosophy.[13][14][15]

However, there has also been extensive criticism of the Garfield and Van Norden article. Two conservative editorials criticized the piece for failing to acknowledge the superiority of Western philosophy.[16][17] Two other articles argued that "philosophy" is, by definition, the tradition that grows out of Plato and Aristotle, so nothing outside that tradition could count as philosophy.[18][19] Professor Amy Olberding of the University of Oklahoma wrote a detailed reply to critics of Garfield and Van Norden, arguing that criticisms fall into a stereotypical pattern that betrays a fundamental misunderstanding of the issues.[20]

Publications[edit]

Books[edit]

  • Dignāga’s Investigation of the Percept: A Philosophical Legacy in India and Tibet (with Douglas Duckworth, David Eckel, John Powers, Yeshes Thabkhas and Sonam Thakchöe,), Oxford University Press 2016)
  • Moonpaths: Ethics in the Context of Conventional Truth (with the Cowherds, Oxford University Press 2015)
  • Engaging Buddhism: Why Does Buddhism Matter to Philosophy? (Oxford University Press 2015)
  • Sweet Reason: A Field Guide to Modern Logic, 2nd Edition (with James Henle and Thomas Tymoczko. Wiley. (2011)
  • Western Idealism and its Critics. Central University of Tibetan Studies Press, Sarnath, India, 2011, English only edition, Hobart: Pyrrho Press 1998.
  • Moonshadows: Conventional Truth in Buddhist Philosophy (with the Cowherds, Oxford University Press. (2010)
  • An Ocean of Reasoning: Tsong kha pa’s Great Commentary on Nāgārjuna’s Mūlamadhyamakakārika (with Geshe Ngawang Samten), Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • Empty Words: Buddhist Philosophy and Cross-Cultural Interpretation. Oxford University Press, New York, 2002.
  • Translator and commentator, Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way: Nāgārjuna's Mūlamadhyamakakārikā. Oxford University Press, New York, 1995.
  • Cognitive Science: An Introduction (with N. Stillings, M. Feinstein, E. Rissland, D. Rosenbaum, S. Weisler, and L. Baker-Ward). Bradford Books/MIT Press, 1987; 2nd edition (with N. Stillings, M. Feinstein, E. Rissland, D. Rosenbaum, S. Weisler, and L. Baker-Ward), Bradford Books/MIT Press, 1995.
  • Belief in Psychology: A Study in the Ontology of Mind. Bradford Books/MIT Press, 1988.

Edited Collections[edit]

  • Madhyamaka and Yogācāra: Allies or Rivals? (ed., with J Westerhoff), Oxford University Press, 2015.
  • The Moon Points Back: Buddhism, Logic and Analytic Philosophy (ed. With Y. Deguchi, G. Priest and K. Tanaka). Oxford University Press, 2015
  • Contrary Thinking: Selected Papers of Daya Krishna (with N Bhushan and D Raveh), Oxford University Press (2011).
  • Indian Philosophy in English: Renaissance to Independence (with N Bhushan), Oxford University Press (2011).
  • Oxford Handbook of World Philosophy (with W Edelglass), Oxford University Press (2010).
  • Pointing at the Moon: Buddhism, Logic Analysis (with T Tillemans and M D’Amato), 2009, Oxford University Press.
  • TransBuddhism: Translation, Transmission and Transformation (with N Bhushan and A Zablocki) 2009, the University of Massachusetts Press.
  • Buddhist Philosophy: Essential Readings (with William Edelglass) 2009, Oxford University Press.
  • Foundations of Cognitive Science: The Essential Readings. Paragon House, New York, 1990.
  • Meaning and Truth: Essential Readings in Modern Semantics (with Murray Kiteley). Paragon House, New York, 1990.
  • Modularity in Knowledge Representation and Natural Language Understanding. Bradford Books/MIT Press, 1987.
  • Abortion: Moral and Legal Perspectives (with Patricia Hennessey). University of Massachusetts Press, 1984.

Articles and Book Chapters[edit]

  • “Reflection on Reflectivity: Comments on Evan Thompson’s Waking, Dreaming, Being," Philosophy East and West 66: 3, July 2016, pp. 943–951.
  • “If Philosophy Won’t Diversify, Let’s Call it What it Really Is” (with Bryan W. Van Norden , The New York Times, 11 May 2016.
  • “Is Moonshadows Lunacy? Reply to Donahue” (with the Cowherds), Philosophy East and West 66:2, pp. 617–621, 2016.
  • “In Defense of Secularity,” in German as “Verteidigung des Säkularen,” Tibet und Buddhismus, XXIX: 2, pp. 45–48, 2015.
  • “Ego, Egoism and the Impact of Religion on Ethical Experience: What a Paradoxical Consequence of Buddhist Culture Tells Us About Moral Psychology,” (with Shaun Nichols, Nina Strohminger and Arun K Rai), The Journal of Ethics 19:3, pp. 293–304. pp. 2015.
  • “Buddhism and Modernity,” in J Powers, ed., The Buddhist World, pp. 94–104. London: Routledge. (2015)
  • “Self and Subjectivity in Colonial India” (with Nalini Bhushan), APA Newsletter on Asian and Asian-American Philosophers and Philosophy Vol. 15:1, pp. 10–15 (2015).
  • “Why We Ask About Madhyamaka and Ethics” (with Graham Priest), in Cowherds, Moonpaths: Ethics and Emptiness, pp 1–6. New York: Oxford University Press (2015)
  • “The Śāntideva Passage: Bodhicāryāvatāra VIII: 90-103” (with Stephen Jenkins and Graham Priest), in Cowherds, Moonpaths: Ethics and Emptiness, pp. 55–76. New York: Oxford University Press (2015)
  • “Buddhist Ethics in the Context of Conventional Truth,” in Cowherds, Moonpaths: Ethics and Emptiness, pp. 77–96. New York: Oxford University Press (2015)
  • “Buddhism and the Loss of Self” (with Nina Strohminger and Shaun Nichols, Slate, June 2015, http://www.slate.com/bigideas/is-there-life-after-death/essays-andopinions/buddhism-and-the-loss-of-self
  • “Why Be Good? Well, Why not?” Slate, May 2015, http://www.slate.com/bigideas/why-begood/essays-and-opinions/jay-garfield-opinion.
  • “Two Truths and Method,” in Deguchi, Garfield, Priest and Tanaka, Eds, The Moon Points Back: Buddhism, Logic and Analytic Philosophy, Oxford University Press. (2015), pp. 245– 261.
  • “Swaraj and Swadeshi: Gandhi and Tagore on Ethics, Development and Freedom” (with Nalini Bhushan), in R.T. Ames and P. D. Hershock (eds.) Value and Values: Economic Justice in an Age of Global Interdependence. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press. (2015), pp. 259–271.
  • “I am a Brain in a Vat, Or Perhaps a Pile of Sticks By the Side of the Road,” in Garfield and Westerhoff, eds., Madhyamaka and Yogācāra: Allies or Rivals?,pp. 254–275 (2015).
  • “Madhyamaka is not Nilihism,” in Jeeloo Liu ed., Much Ado About Nothing: Theories of Nothingness in Asian and Western Philosophy. London: Routledge, pp. 44–54. (2014)
  • “Asian Philosophy,” with P Bilimoria, M Chadha and K Lai, in G Oppy and N Trakakis (eds)., A Companion to Philosophy in Australia and New Zealand. Melbourne: Monash University Publishing, pp. 32–36. (2014)
  • “Just Another Word for Nothing Left to Lose: Freedom, Agency and Ethics for Mādhyamikas,” M. Dasti and E. Bryant (eds.), Freedom of the Will in a Cross-Cultural Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, pp 164–185. (2014), reprinted in R Reptti, ed., Buddhism and Free Will. London: Routledge (2016), pp. 45–58.
  • “Evidentiality, Questions and the Reflection Principle in Tibetan: What do Children Learn when they Learn About Evidentiality?” (with Jill de Villiers), forthcoming in D. Slobin (ed.), Social environment and cognition in language development: Studies in honor of Ayhan Aksu-Koç. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. (2016)
  • “A Tale of Five Commentaries: The Ālambanāparīkṣā and its Indo-Tibetan Commentaries,” for Alaṃbanāparikṣā and its Indian and Tibetan Commentaries (with David Eckel and John Powers) ) in Alaṃbanāparikṣā and its Indian and Tibetan Commentaries: A Philosophical Legacy in India and Tibet, Oxford University Press, 2016, pp. 3–37.
  • “Introduction to Summary of the Essence,” (With John Powers and Sonam Thakchöe) for Alaṃbanāparikṣā and its Indian and Tibetan Commentaries: A Philosophical Legacy in India and Tibet, Oxford University Press, 2016, pp. 169–174.
  • “Cittamātra as Conventional Truth from Śāntarakṣita to Mipham,” forthcoming in Journal of Buddhist Philosophy vol. 2 (2016), pp. 263–280.
  • “Two Truths and Method,” in Deguchi, Garfield, Priest and Tanaka, Eds, The Moon Points Back: Buddhism, Logic and Analytic Philosophy, Oxford University Press. (2015), pp. 245–261.
  • “Swaraj and Swadeshi: Gandhi and Tagore on Ethics, Development and Freedom” (with Nalini Bhushan), in R.T. Ames and P. D. Hershock (eds.) Value and Values: Economic Justice in an Age of Global Interdependence. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press. (2015), pp. 259–271.
  • “I am a Brain in a Vat, Or Perhaps a Pile of Sticks By the Side of the Road,” in Garfield and Westerhoff, eds., Madhyamaka and Yogācāra: Allies or Rivals?,pp. 254–275 (2015).
  • “Madhyamaka is not Nilihism,” in Jeeloo Liu ed., Much Ado About Nothing: Theories of Nothingness in Asian and Western Philosophy. London: Routledge, pp. 44–54. (2014)
  • “Asian Philosophy,” with P Bilimoria, M Chadha and K Lai, in G Oppy and N Trakakis (eds)., A Companion to Philosophy in Australia and New Zealand. Melbourne: Monash University Publishing, pp. 32–36. (2014)
  • “Just Another Word for Nothing Left to Lose: Freedom, Agency and Ethics for Mādhyamikas,” M. Dasti and E. Bryant (eds.), Freedom of the Will in a Cross-Cultural Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, pp 164–185. (2014), reprinted in R Reptti, ed., Buddhism and Free Will. London: Routledge (2016), pp. 45–58.
  • “Defending the Semantic Interpretation: Response to Ferraro” (with Mark Siderits) The Journal of Indian Philosophy 45:6, pp. 655–664. (2013)
  • "Remembering Daya Krishna and GC Pande: Two Giants of Post-Independence Indian Philosophy," with Arindam Chakrabarti, in Press, Philosophy East and West 63:4, pp 58–64. (2013)
  • “How We Think Mādhyamikas Think: Reply to Tillemans,” (with Y Deguchi and G Priest), Philosophy East and West 63:3, 427-436, 2013.
  • “Those Conceptions Proliferate Everywhere: Reply to Kassor,” (with Y Deguchi and Graham Priest), Philosophy East and West, 63:3, 411-416, 2013.
  • “Does a Table Have Buddha-Nature? A Moment of Yes and No. Answer! But Not in Words or Signs: Reply to Siderits,” (with Y Deguchi and G Priest), Philosophy East and West 63:3, 387-398, 2013.
  • “The Contradictions are True—And not Out of this World: Reply to Yagisawa,” (with Y Deguchi and G Priest), Philosophy East and West 63:3, 370-372, 2013.
  • “2+1=1: Reply to Ziporyn,” (with Y Deguchi and G Priest), Philosophy East and West 63:3, 353-358, 2013.
  • “A Mountain By Any Other Name: Reply to Tanaka,” (with Y Deguchi and G Priest), Philosophy East and West 63:3, pp. 335–343, 2013.
  • “Public Trust” (with Cynthia Townley), in P Mäkelä and C Townley, eds, Trust: Analytic and Applied Perspectives, Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, pp 95–108. (2013)
  • “Evidentiality, Tense and Aspect: Evidence from Tibetan,” (with Kalsang, P Speas and J deVilliers), Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 31:2, pp 517–561. (2013)
  • “Max Charlesworth’s Sophia: The First Half-Century and the Next,” Sophia 51: 4, 2012.
  • “Mindfulness and Ethics: Attention, Virtue and Perfection,” in German as Achtsamkeit als Grundlage für ethisches Verhalten in M. Zimmermann, C. Spitz and S Schmidtt eds., Achtsamkeit 227-250. Stuttgart: Hans Huber. (2012), Thai International Journal of Buddhist Studies vol. III, pp. 1–24. (2012), forthcoming in J Davis (ed), A Mirror is for Reflection: Understanding Buddhist Ethics, New York: Oxford University Press (2016).
  • “Buddhist Ethics,” (in German as “Buddhistische Ethiks)” in Polylog 27: 98-110. (2012).
  • “Sellarsian Synopsis: Integrating the Images,” Humana Mente: Journal of Philosophical Studies. 23, pp 101–121. (2012)
  • “Ask Not What Buddhism Can Do for Cognitive Science. Ask Rather What Cognitive Science Can Do for Buddhism,” Bulletin of Tibetology 47:1,15-30. (2012)
  • “Acquiring the Notion of Dependent Origination: Reply to Berger,” (with J Westerhoff, 'Philosophy East and West 61: 2, pp 365–368. (2011)
  • “Bringing Brahman Down to Earth: Līlāvāda in Colonial India” (with N Bhushan) in Bhushan and Garfield (eds.), Indian Philosophy in English: Renaissance to Independence. 435-453. (2011), reprinted in Śraddhā 4:1, pp 84–102. (2012) and in P Heehs, ed., Situating Aurobindo: A Reader. New Delhi, Oxford University Press, pp 197–216. (2013)
  • “The Plato of Allahabad: AC Mukerji’s Contributions to Indian and World Philosophy,” in Bhushan and Garfield (eds.), Indian Philosophy in English: Renaissance to Independence. 455-470 (2011).
  • “An Indian in Paris: Cosmopolitan Aesthetics in India” (with N Bhushan), in Bhushan and Garfield (eds.), Indian Philosophy in English: Renaissance to Independence, 231-243. (2011)
  • “Buddhism in the West,” http://infobuddhism.com/Buddhism_in_the_West_Jay_Garfield.html(2011).
  • “Hey Buddha! Don’t Think! Just Act!: reply to Finnigan,” Philosophy East and West, 64:1, pp 174–183, 2011.
  • “What is it Like to be a Bodhisattva?,” Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, 33:1-2, pp. 327–351. (2010/2011)
  • “Wie lese ich Nāgārjunas Grundverse zum Mittleren Weg,” Tibet Buddhismus 2, pp 19–27. (2010)
  • “Teaching David Foster Wallace,” in S Cahn and M Eckert, eds., Fate Language and Time: David Foster Wallace’s Essay on Free Will. New York: Columbia University Press, pp 219–221. (2010)
  • “Philosophie ist eine globale Unternehmung,” Tibet Buddhismus 4, pp . 33-37. (2010)
  • “Der Buddhismus trifft im Westen auf eine reiche Kultur,” Tibet Buddhismus 4, pp 29–33. (2010)
  • “Pandits and Professors: The Renaissance of Secular India” (with N Bhushan), Journal of the Indian Council for Philosophical Research XXVI: 1, pp 141–159 (2009, published 2010), in G Mishra, ed., Essays in Memory of Daya Krishna. New Delhi: Indian Council for Philosophical Research (2010) and in Bhushan and Garfield (eds.), Indian Philosophy in English: Renaissance to Independence (2011) 3-20.
  • “Identifying the Object of Negation and the Status of Conventional Truth: Why the dgag bya Matters So Much to Tibetan Mādhyamikas” (with Sonam Thakchöe), in Cowherds, Moonshadows: Conventional Truth in Buddhist Philosophy, 73-88 New York: Oxford University Press. 2010
  • “Madhyamaka and Classical Greek Scepticism” (with Georges Dreyfus), in Cowherds, Moonshadows: Conventional Truth in Buddhist Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press, 115-130. (2010).
  • “Authority about the Deceptive: What is True about Conventional Truth?,” Philosophy East and West 60: 3, pp 341–354 (2010) and as “Taking Conventional Truth Seriously: Authority Regarding Deceptive Reality,” in Cowherds, Moonshadows: Conventional Truth in Buddhist Philosophy, New York: Oxford University Press, 23-38. (2010)
  • “Mountains are Just Mountains” (with Graham Priest), in M D’Amato, J Garfield and T Tillemans, eds, Pointing at the Moon: Buddhism, Logic, Analysis, New York: Oxford University Press, pp 71–82. (2009)
  • “Enlightenment and the Enlightenment,” in KP Rao (ed.), Buddhism, World Culture and Human Values. Sarnath: Central University of Tibetan Studies Press, pp 34–48 (2009).
  • “Evidentiality and Narrative,” The Journal of Consciousness Studies 16: 6-8, pp 191–217 (with J deVilliers). (2009)
  • “Evidentials in Tibetan: Acquisition, Semantics and Cognitive Development,” with J deVilliers, H Gernet-Girard, P Speas and T Roeper in S Fitneva and T Matsui, eds, Evidentiality: A Window into Cognitive Development, San Francisco: Josie Bass (with J de Villiers, H Gernet-Girard, P Speas and T Roeper), 2009, pp. 29–48.
  • Tsong khapa's Commentary on MMK XXIV: 18, 19, in Edelglass and Garfield (eds), Buddhist Philosophy: Essential Readings, New York: Oxford University Press, pp 224–237. (2009)
  • “Nāgārjuna's Mūlamadhyamakakārikā ch 24,” in Edelglass and Garfield (eds), Buddhist Philosophy: Essential Readings, New York: Oxford University Press, pp 26–34. (2009)
  • “Vasubandhu's Trisvabhāvanirdeśa, in Edelglass and Garfield (eds), Buddhist Philosophy: Essential Readings, New York: Oxford University Press, pp 35-45. (2009)
  • “Whose Voice? Whose Tongue? Indian Philosophy in English from Renaissance to Independence,” Journal of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research XXV: 2, pp 89–108, (2008 published 2009) (with Nalini Bhushan)
  • “Turning a Madhyamaka Trick: Reply to Huntington,” Journal of Indian Philosophy XXXVI: 4, pp 428–449. (2008)
  • “The Way of the Dialetheist: Contradictions in Buddhist Philosophy” (with Graham Priest and Yasuo Deguchi), Philosophy East and West 58: 3, pp 395–402, 2008.
  • “Educating for Virtuoso Living: Papers from the Ninth East-West Philosopher’s Conference,” Philosophy East and West 57: 3, pp 285–289, 2007.
  • “Reductionism and Fictionalism: Comments on Siderits,” APA Newsletter on Asian and Comparative Philosophy, VI:1, pp 1–8, 2006.
  • “Buddhist Studies, Buddhist Practice and the Trope of Authenticity,” Seeds of Peace, 2006.
  • “Why Did Bodhidharma Go to the East? Buddhism’s Struggle with the Mind in the World,” Sophia 45: 2, pp 61–80, 2006.
  • “The Conventional Status of Reflexive Awareness: What’s At Stake in A Tibetan Debate?,” Philosophy East and West 56: 3,pp 201–228, 2006, M Friquenon and N Dinnerstein (eds.), Studies on Śāntaraksita’s Yogācāra Madhyamaka, New York: Global Scholarly Publication, pp. 291–334. (2012)
  • “Some Problems with the ‘Fine Tuning Argument’,” (with Mark Colyvan and Graham Priest), Synthese 145:3, pp 325-338, 2005.
  • "Translation as Transmission and as Transformation,” APA Newsletter on Asian and Comparative Philosophy 2005, in Bhushan, Garfield and Zablocki, eds., TransBuddhism: Translation, Transmission and Transformation. (2009)Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, pp 89–103 and in Thieme Almanac, 2008
  • “Nāgārjuna,” Encyclopedia of Philosophy, New York: MacMillan 2005.
  • “Too Pee and Not to Pee: Could that be the Question?: Further Reflections of the Dog,” in Priest, G and JC Beall, eds, (2004) New Essays on the Law of Non-Contradiction, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 235–244.
  • “Coherence as an Explanation of Theory of Mind Task Failure in Autism,” (with Deepthi Kamawar and Jill de Villiers), Mind and Language 17: 3, pp 273–276. 2002.
  • “Social Cognition, Language Acquisition and the Theory of Mind” (with Candida Peterson and Tricia Perry), Mind and Language vol 16, no 9, 2001, pp 494–541.
  • “Propositional Attitudes,” Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science, New York: Macmillan, 2002, pp 754–761.
  • “Sounds of Silence: Ineffability and the Limits of Language in Madhyamaka and Yogācāra,” in Empty Words, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002, pp 170–186.
  • “Nāgārjuna and the Limits of Thought” (with Graham Priest), Philosophy East and West 53: 1, 2003, pp 1–21; reprinted in Empty Words, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002, pp 86–108 and in G. Priest, Beyond the Limits of Thought, 2nd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • “Pain Deproblematized,” Philosophical Psychology 14 no 1, 2001, pp 103–107.
  • “Philosophy, Religion and the Hermeneutic Imperative,” in Malpas, J, U Arnswald and J Kertcsher, eds, Gadamer’s Century: Essays in Honour of Hans Georg Gadamer. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp 97–110 and in Empty Words, Oxford University Press, 2002. pp 251–260.
  • “The Meanings of ‘Meaning’ and ‘Meaning’: Dimensions of the Sciences of Mind,” Philosophical Psychology Vol 13, no 4, pp 421-440, 2000.
  • “Nāgārjuna’s Theory of Causality: Implications Sacred and Profane,” Philosophy East and West, 51:4, 2001, pp 507–524, reprinted in Empty Words, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002, 69-85.
  • “Temporality and Alterity: Dimensions of Hermeneutic Distance,” (in German as
  • “Zeitlichkeit und Andersheit. Dimensionen hermeneutischer Distanz” Polylog 5, 2000 , pp 42–61, in Samanvaya, 2001, reprinted in Empty Words, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002, pp 229–250 and in McCarthy, M and S Birch (eds), Thieme Almanac 2008: Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine. Stuttgart: Thieme Publishers.
  • “Particularity and Principle: The Structure of Moral Knowledge,” in M Little and B Hooker, eds, Moral Particularism, Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • “Thought as Language: A Metaphor Too Far,” Protosoziology Vol 14, 2000, pp 85–101.
  • “Buddhism and Democracy,” in Paidea: Proceedings of the XX’th World Congress of Philosophy, V. III: Social Philosophy, pp 1–19, 2000, reprinted in Empty Words, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. pp 206–219.
  • “The ‘Satya’ in Satyagraha,” in J Samten and L Norbu Shastri, eds, Truth and Nonviolence: Essays in Honour of Samdhong Rinpoche, Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies Press, 1999, reprinted in Empty Words, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002, pp 220-228.
  • “Candrakīrti,” in Arrington (ed), A Companion to the Philosophers, Oxford, Blackwell, 1998.
  • “Western Approaches to Emptiness,” Ordinary Mind, Spring 1998, pp 8–15.
  • “Western Idealism Through Indian Eyes: Reading Berkeley, Kant and Schopenhauer through Vasubandhu,” Sophia Vol 37, no 1, 1998, pp 10–41, reprinted in Empty Words, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002, pp 152–169, in Irvine, A. and Purushottama, B., Postcolonial Philosophy of Religion, Nijmagen: Springer, 2009, pp 121–139.
  • “Quine and Sellars: Twilight of the Dogmas and the Death of Modernism” in Dowe and Nicholls, ed., Philosophy in America, Pyrrho Press, 1997.
  • “Respecting Autonomy through Proxy Decisionmaking: Treatment Decisions for No-Longer Competent Patients,” in Shotton, ed, Health Care Ethics and the Law, Social Science Press 1997.
  • “Mentalese Not Spoken Here: Computation, Cognition and Causation,” Philosophical Psychology Vol 10, no 4, 1997, pp 413–435.
  • “Trisvabhāvanirdeśa: A Translation and Commentary,” Asian Philosophy, Vol 7, no 2, pp 133–154, 1997, reprinted in Empty Words, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002, pp 128–151.
  • “Choosing Coercion: A Preliminary Ethical Study of Academic Life,” in H.S. Helsten and M. Hari, eds, Taking the Liberal Challenge Seriously: Essays in Honour of Timo Airaksinen, Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1997.
  • “Three Natures and Three Naturelessnesses: Comments on Cittamatra Conceptual Categories,” The Journal of Indian Philosophy and Religion, Vol I, no 2 1997, pp 1–24, reprinted in Empty Words, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002, pp 109–127 and in P Bilmoria and A Irvine, eds., Post-Colonial Philosophy of Religion, Dordrecht: Springer, pp 117–136.
  • “Casting Out Demons and Exorcising Zombies: Exposing Neocartesian Myths in Frank Jackson’s Philosophy of Mind,” in Dowe, Nicholls and Shotton, eds, Australian Philosophers, Hobart: Pyrrhro Press, 1996.
  • “Emptiness and Positionlessness: Do the Mādhyamika Relinquish all Views?,” Journal of Indian Philosophy and Religion 1, 1996, pp 1–34, reprinted in Empty Words, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002, pp 46–68.
  • “Educating for a Free Tibet,” Tibet Review, Summer 1995, pp 2–5.
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  • “The Dog: Relevance and Rationality,” in M. Dunn and A. Gupta eds, Truth or Consequences: Essays in Honor of Nuel Belnap, Kluwer, pp 97–110. 1990
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  • “Convention, Context, and Meaning: Conditions on Natural Language Understanding,” Five College Cognitive Science Institute Working Papers in Cognitive Science, 1988; in Garfield (ed.) Foundations of Cognitive Science: The Essential Readings, New York: Paragon Press, 1990.
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External links[edit]