Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation

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The Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation by WHO and UNICEF[1] is the official United Nations mechanism tasked with monitoring progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) relating to drinking water and sanitation (MDG 7, Target 7c), which is to: "Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking-water and basic sanitation".[2]

The JMP is required to use the following MDG indicators for monitoring:

• Proportion of population using an improved drinking-water source;

• Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility.

An improved water source is defined by the JMP as one that, by nature of its construction or through active intervention, is likely to be protected from outside contamination, in particular from contamination with fecal matter.[3] An improved sanitation facility is defined as one that is likely to hygienically separate human excreta from human contact.[3]

As well as reporting on the national, regional and global use of difference types of drinking water sources and sanitation facilities, the JMP actively supports countries in their efforts to monitor this sector and develop evidence based planning and management, plays a normative role in indicator formation and advocates on behalf of populations without improved water or sanitation.

The JMP is housed within the World Health Organization and UNICEF, and supported by a Strategic Advisory Group of independent technical and policy experts as well as various Technical Task Forces convened around important specific topics.[4]

Update: In May 2013, the JMP released its latest estimates on the use of various types of drinking-water sources and sanitation facilities at the national, regional and global levels.[5]

JMP activities[edit]

The JMP’s 4 priority areas of activity for 2010-2015 are: 1. maintaining the integrity of the JMP database and ensuring accurate global estimates; 2. disseminating data to stakeholders; 3. fulfilling the JMP’s normative role in developing and validating target indicators; 4. enhancing interaction between countries and JMP.

In May 2013, the JMP released its latest estimates on the use of various types of drinking-water sources and sanitation facilities at the national, regional and global levels.[5]

The JMP makes its data and information available through a variety of channels and formats, including workshops in countries, its major biennial reports and website (www.wssinfo.org), the UNICEF statistical website (www.childinfo.org), and through Google Public Data.[6] The data are also used by the World Bank and the World Health Organization's Statistical Information System (WHOSIS).[7]

The JMP collaborates with other international and national organizations to strengthen global and domestic monitoring. The Programme also plays an advocacy role, highlighting the right to improved drinking water and sanitation for populations missing out and helping to target interventions.

In preparation for the post-2015 period, the JMP has initiated four working groups which are developing potential future targets and indicators for water, sanitation, hygiene and equity/non-discrimination).[8]

Vision and mission[edit]

The JMP vision is to accelerate progress towards universal and sustainable access for underserved populations in the developing world to safe water and basic sanitation, including the achievement of the MDG targets by 2015.

The JMP’s mission is to be the trusted source of global, regional and national data on sustainable access to safe drinking-water and basic sanitation, for use by governments, donors, international organizations and civil society.

Criteria for improved sanitation according to the JMP[edit]

Improved sanitation facilities[edit]

These are facilities which are not shared or public:

  • Flush or pour-flush to:
  • Ventilated improved pit latrine
  • Pit latrine with slab
  • Composting toilet

Unimproved sanitation facilities[edit]

  • Flush or pour-flush to elsewhere (excreta are flushed to the street, yard or plot, open sewer, a ditch, a drainage way or other location)

Estimation method[edit]

The JMP does not collect primary data itself. Instead, to the extent possible, it exclusively uses data from primary sources such as censuses and national household surveys that are conducted by national statistical authorities every few years. These surveys include the UNICEF-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and the USAID funded Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). One of the challenges faced by the JMP is that the definitions for an improved water source and improved sanitation are not consistent across countries. Another challenge is that censuses and surveys are only conducted every few years. The JMP thus uses linear regression to estimate data for a given year in a particular country even if no survey or census was carried out in that year, in order to be able to compare data across countries for the given year.[9]

Reasons for discrepancies between national and international (JMP) coverage estimates[edit]

The indicators used by the JMP are controversial because they cannot always match cultural and local perceptions of what works or not, and can differ from national estimates. Discrepancies between national and international (JMP) coverage estimates are generally due to one or more of the following:

1) Use of different definitions of access including poorly defined access categories

2) Exclusion of users of shared sanitation facilities of an otherwise improved type, from those considered to have improved sanitation

3) Use of latest survey or census findings vs. use of an interpolated estimates based on linear regression

4) Use of different population estimates, including a different distribution of urban and rural populations

5) Use of “old” estimates which do not reflect the latest or all findings from new sample surveys or a new census

6) Use of “reported” line ministry data vs. use of independently verifiable data from sample surveys or censuses

Challenges[edit]

Complete information about drinking water safety, and the reliability and sustainability of drinking water and sanitation facilities is not available globally, and so these dimensions are not included in the current indicator definitions.[10][11] Systematically testing the microbial and chemical quality of water at the national level in all countries is prohibitively expensive and logistically complicated. However, the JMP is working to include these challenging dimensions to the extent possible in future indicators. Between 2002 and 2008, the Rapid Assessment of Drinking-Water Quality (RADWQ) project was designed and the quality of drinking-water from improved sources was evaluated in a number of pilot countries.[12] In 2011 the JMP focused its thematic report on equity, safety and sustainability.[13] In 2012 the JMP has been supporting the piloting of water quality testing alongside household surveys.

Continued efforts are also needed to reduce urban-rural disparities and inequities associated with poverty; to dramatically increase coverage in countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania; to bring sanitation progress on track; and to look beyond the MDG target towards universal coverage.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ WHO and UNICEF JMP website homepage, WHO, Geneva and UNICEF, New York, accessed on June 10, 2012
  2. ^ United Nations:World Water Assessment Program, accessed on February 27, 2010
  3. ^ a b JMP Website (WHO and UNICEF) Definitions, accessed on 12 March 2015
  4. ^ WHO and UNICEF overview of Task Forces on the JMP website, WHO, Geneva and UNICEF, New York, accessed on June 10, 2012
  5. ^ a b WHO and UNICEF Progress on Sanitation and Drinking-water: 2013 Update, WHO, Geneva and UNICEF, New York
  6. ^ UNICEF UNICEF’s statistical website, UNICEF, New York, accessed on June 10, 2012
  7. ^ WHO:World Health Statistics indicator compendium 2009, p. 137-140, accessed on February 28, 2010
  8. ^ WHO and UNICEF:Overview of the Post-2015 Monitoring working groups on the JMP website, WHO, Geneva and UNICEF, New York, accessed on June 10, 2012
  9. ^ WHO and UNICEF:Introduction to JMP methodology on the JMP website, WHO, Geneva and UNICEF, New York, accessed on June 10, 2012
  10. ^ WHO and UNICEF Progress on Drinking-water and Sanitation: 2012 Update, op.cit page 4
  11. ^ Jeremy Allouche and Lyla Mehta:Water and sanitation for all: the need to go beyond numbers and beyond the MDGs, September 17, 2010, posted on Eldis
  12. ^ WHO and UNICEF:Introduction to water quality on the JMP website, WHO, Geneva and UNICEF, New York, accessed on June 10, 2012
  13. ^ WHO and UNICEF:Thematic reports on the JMP website, WHO, Geneva and UNICEF, New York, accessed on September 20, 2012