Sustainable Development Goals

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"SDG" redirects here. For other uses, see SDG (disambiguation).


The Sustainable Development Goals are a UN Initiative.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), officially known as Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is a set of 17 "Global Goals" with 169 targets between them. Spearheaded by the United Nations through a deliberative process involving its 193 Member States, as well as global civil society, the goals are contained in paragraph 54 United Nations Resolution A/RES/70/1 of 25 September 2015.[1] The Resolution is a broader intergovernmental agreement that acts as the Post 2015 Development Agenda (successor to the Millennium Development Goals). The SDGs build on the Principles agreed upon under Resolution A/RES/66/288, popularly known as The Future We Want.[2]

The SDGs were in large measure informed by the often quoted assertion by United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon that "we don’t have plan B because there is no planet B".[3]

On 19 July 2014, the UN General Assembly's Open Working Group (OWG) on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) forwarded a proposal for the SDGs to the Assembly. The proposal contained 17 goals with 169 targets covering a broad range of sustainable development issues. These included ending poverty and hunger, improving health and education, making cities more sustainable, combating climate change, and protecting oceans and forests.[4] On 5 December 2014, the UN General Assembly accepted the Secretary-General's Synthesis Report which stated that the agenda for the post-2015 SDG process would be based on the OWG proposals.[5]

The Intergovernmental Negotiations on the Post 2015 Development Agenda (IGN) began in January 2015 and ended in August 2015. Following the negotiations, a final document was adopted at the UN Sustainable Development Summit September 25–27, 2015 in New York, USA.[6] The title of the agenda is Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.[7][8]

Background[edit]

The history of the SDGs can be traced to 1972 when governments met in Stockholm, Sweden, for the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, to consider the rights of the human family to a healthy and productive environment.[9] It was not until 1983 that the United Nations decided to create the World Commission on Environment and Development which defined sustainable development as "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". In 1992 the first United Nations Conference on Environment and Development was held in Rio. The first agenda for Environment and Development, also known as Agenda 21, was developed and adopted in Rio.

Official logos for each of the Millennium Development Goals.

In preparation for the Rio+20 Conference, Indonesia held a July 2011 government retreat in Solo, Indonesia. At this event, Colombia proposed the idea of the SDGs. This was picked up by the United nations Department of Public Information 64th NGO Conference in September 2011 in Bonn where the outcome document proposed 17 sustainable development goals and associated targets. In the run-up to Rio+20 there was much discussion about the idea of SDGs. At the Rio+20 Conference, a resolution, known as The Future We Want[10] was reached by member states. Among the key themes agreed on were poverty eradication, energy, water and sanitation, health, and human settlement.

Paragraph 246 of the Future We Want outcome document forms the link between the Rio+20 agreement and the Millennium Development Goals: "We recognize that the development of goals could also be useful for pursuing focused and coherent action on sustainable development. The goals should address and incorporate in a balanced way all three dimensions of sustainable development (environment, economics, and society) and their interlinkages. The development of these goals should not divert focus or effort from the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals". Paragraph 249 states that "the process needs to be coordinated and coherent with the processes to consider the post-2015 development agenda".

Taken together, paragraph 246 and 249 paved the way for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).[11] The MDGs were officially established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000 and the agreement in the Future We Want outcome document. The Rio+20 summit also agreed that the process of designing sustainable development goals, should be "action-oriented, concise and easy to communicate, limited in number, aspirational, global in nature and universally applicable to all countries while taking into account different national realities, capacities and levels of development and respecting national policies and priorities".[12]

Because the MDGs were to be achieved by 2015, a further process was needed. Discussion of the post-2015 framework for international development began well in advance, with the United Nations System Task Team on Post 2015 Development Agenda[13] releasing the first report known as Realizing The Future We Want.[14] The Report was the first attempt to achieve the requirements under paragraph 246 and 249 of the Future We Want document. It identified four dimensions as part of a global vision for sustainable development: Inclusive Social Development, Environmental Sustainability, Inclusive Economic Development, and Peace and Security. Other processes included the UN Secretary General's High Level Panel on the Post 2015 Development Agenda,[15] whose report[16] was submitted to the Secretary General in 2013.

The 17 goals[edit]

A diagram listing the 17 Sustainable Development Goals
Further information: Post-2015 Development Agenda

On 25 September 2015, the 194 countries of the UN General Assembly adopted the 2030 Development Agenda titled Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Following the adoption, UN agencies under the umbrella of the United Nations Development Group, decided to support an independent campaign to help communicate the agreed Sustainable Development Goals to a wider constituency. Known as Project Everyone,[17] the independent campaign introduced the term Global Goals and was supported by corporate institutions and other International Organizations. Because this decision was made without the approval of the member states, it met resistance.[18] In addition, several sections of civil society and governments felt[19] the UNDG ignored "sustainability," even though it was the most important aspect of the agreement. That the term "Global Goals" also refers to several other processes not related to the United Nations was another concern.

The Official Agenda for Sustainable Development adopted on 25 September 2015 has 92 paragraphs. Paragraph 51 outlines the 17 Sustainable Development Goals and the associated 169 targets.

The 17 SDGs are listed below, together with some of their key facts and figures:[20]

Goal 1: No Poverty[edit]

No Poverty - End poverty in all its forms everywhere[21]

  • Extreme poverty has been cut by more than half since 1990- however, more than 1 in 5 people live on less than $1.25 a day
  • Poverty is more than lack of income or resources- it includes lack of basic services, such as education, hunger, social discrimination and exclusion, and lack of participation in decision making.
  • Gender inequality plays a large role in the perpetuation of poverty and its risks; They then face potentially life-threatening risks from early pregnancy, and often lost hopes for an education and a better income.
  • Age groups are affected differently when struck with poverty; its most devastating effects are on children, to whom it poses a great threat. It affects their education, health, nutrition, and security. It also negatively affects the emotional and spiritual development of children through the environment it creates.

Goal 2: Zero Hunger[edit]

Zero Hunger - End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture[22]

  • Globally, 1 in 9 people are undernourished, the vast majority of these people live in developing countries
  • Agriculture is the single largest employer in the world, providing livelihoods for 40 per cent of today’s global population. It is the largest source of income and jobs for poor rural households. Women comprise on average 43 per cent of the agricultural labor force in developing countries, and over 50 per cent in parts of Asia and Africa, yet they only own 20% of the land.
  • Poor nutrition causes nearly half (45 per cent) of deaths in children under five – 3.1 million children each year.

Goal 3: Good Health and Well-being[edit]

Good Health and Well-being - Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages[23]

  • Significant strides have been made in increasing life expectancy and reducing some of the common killers associated with child and maternal mortality, and major progress has been made on increasing access to clean water and sanitation, reducing malaria, tuberculosis, polio and the spread of HIV/AIDS.
  • However, only half of women in developing countries have received the health care they need, and the need for family planning is increasing exponentially, while the need met is growing slowly - more than 225 million women have an unmet need for contraception.
  • An important target is to substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from pollution-related diseases.

Goal 4: Quality Education[edit]

Quality Education - Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all[24]

  • Major progress has been made for education access, specifically at the primary school level, for both boys and girls. However, access does not always mean quality of education, or completion of primary school. Currently, 103 million youth worldwide still lack basic literacy skills, and more than 60 per cent of them are women
  • Target 1 "By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and Goal-4 effective learning outcomes"- shows the commitment to nondiscriminatory education outcomes

Goal 5: Gender Equality[edit]

Gender Equality - Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls[25]

  • Providing women and girls with equal access to education, health care, decent work, and representation in political and economic decision-making processes will fuel sustainable economies and benefit societies and humanity at large
  • While a record 143 countries guaranteed equality between men and women in their Constitutions by 2014, another 52 had not taken this step. In many nations, gender discrimination is still woven through legal and social norms
  • Though goal 5 is the gender equality stand-alone goal, the SDG's can only be successful if women are completely integrated into each and every goal

Goal 6: Clean Water and Sanitation[edit]

Clean Water and Sanitation - Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all[26]

The first three out of eight targets include:[26]

  • "By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all."
  • "By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations."
  • "By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally."

WASH experts have stated that without progress on Goal 6, the other goals and targets cannot be achieved.[27][28] Safe drinking water and hygienic toilets protect people from disease and enable societies to be productive. Attending school and work without disruption is a precursor to education and employment, both of which are the foundation of alleviating poverty. A study from 2016 showed how sanitation, when done with a resource recovery and reuse focus can contribute towards achieving at least fourteen of the SDGs, especially in an urban context.[29] Recovering the resources embedded in excreta and wastewater like nutrients, water and energy contributes towards achieving Goal 12 (sustainable consumption and production) and Goal 2 (zero hunger) while ensuring adequate sanitation and wastewater management along the entire value chain in cities contributes to Goal 11 (sustainable cities and communities), Goal 1 (no poverty) and Goal 8 (decent work and economic growth).

Goal 7: Affordable and Clean Energy[edit]

Affordable and Clean Energy - Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all[30]

Goal 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth[edit]

Decent Work and Economic Growth - Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all[31]

World Pensions Council (WPC) development economists have argued that the twin considerations of long-term economic growth and infrastructure investment weren’t prioritized enough: “More worryingly, ‘Work and Economic Growth’ and ‘Technological Innovation and Infrastructure Investment’ joined the [SDGs] priority list at number 8 and number 9 respectively, a rather mediocre ranking which defies economic common sense” [32]

Goal 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure[edit]

Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure - Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation[33]

Goal 10: Reduced Inequalities[edit]

Reduced Inequalities - Reduce income inequality within and among countries[34]

Goal 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities[edit]

Sustainable Cities and Communities - Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable[35]

Goal 12: Responsible Consumption and Production[edit]

Responsible Consumption and Production - Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns[36]

Goal 13: Climate Action[edit]

Climate Action - Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts by regulating emissions and promoting developments in renewable energy[37]

Nations and other parties negotiating at the UN have highlighted the links between the post-2015 SDG process, the Financing for Development process to be concluded in Addis Ababa in July 2015, and the COP 21 Climate Change conference in Paris in December 2015.[38]

In May 2015, a report concluded that only a very ambitious climate deal in Paris in 2015 will enable countries to reach the sustainable development goals and targets.[39] The report also states that tackling climate change will only be possible if the SDGs are met. Further, development and climate are inextricably linked, particularly around poverty, gender equality, and energy. The UN encourages the public sector to take initiative in this effort to minimize negative impacts on the environment.[40]

This renewed emphasis on climate change mitigation was made possible by the partial Sino-American convergence that developed in 2015-2016, notably at the UN COP21 summit (Paris) and ensuing G20 conference (Hangzhou). [32]

Goal 14: Life Below Water[edit]

Life Below Water - Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development[41]

Goal 15: Life on Land[edit]

Life on Land - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss[42]

Goal 16: Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions[edit]

Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions - Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels[43]

Goal 17: Partnerships for the Goals[edit]

Partnerships for the Goals - Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development[44]

Targets and indicators[edit]

As of August 2015, there were 169 proposed targets for these goals and 304 proposed indicators to show compliance.[45]

The process (for arriving at the Post-2015 development agenda)[edit]

Since Rio+20 did not elaborate specific goals, a 30-member Open Working Group (OWG) was established on 22 January 2013 by the decision of the UN General Assembly. The OWG was tasked with preparing a proposal on the SDGs for consideration during the 68th session of the General Assembly, September 2013 – September 2014.[46]

The OWG used a constituency-based system of representation: most of the seats in the working group are shared by several countries. After 13 sessions, the OWG submitted their proposal of 17 SDGs and 169 targets to the 68th session of the UN General Assembly in September, 2014.[47]

The Rio+20 outcome document mentioned, “at the outset, the OWG will decide on its methods of work, including developing modalities to ensure the full involvement of relevant stakeholders and expertise from civil society, the scientific community and the United Nations system in its work, in order to provide a diversity of perspectives and experience”.[48]

Critique[edit]

A report by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) of 2013 criticized the SDGs for not being ambitious enough. They cite evidence from the report "An Ambitious Development Goal: Ending Hunger and Undernutrition by 2025" to suggest the emphasis should not be on an end to poverty by 2030, but on eliminating hunger and under-nutrition by 2025. The assertion is based on an analysis of experiences in China, Vietnam, Brazil and Thailand. The report identifies 3 pathways to achieving the goal by 2025. 1) agriculture-led; 2) social protection- and nutrition intervention-led; or 3) a combination of both of these approaches.[49]

The SDGs have been criticized for being contradictory, because in seeking high levels of global GDP growth, they will undermine their own ecological objectives. It has also been noted that, in relation to the headline goal of eliminating extreme poverty, "a growing number of scholars are pointing out that $1.25 is actually not adequate for human subsistence", and the poverty line should be revised to as high as $5.[50]

A commentary in The Economist argued that 169 targets for the SDGs is too many. The article used descriptors like "sprawling", "misconceived", and "a mess" compared to the Millennium Development Goals. Another criticsm is that the goals ignore local context and promote "cookie-cutter development policies". That all other sustainable development goals are contingent on achieving SDG 1, ending poverty. The Economist estimated that alleviating poverty and achieving the other sustainable development goals will require about $2-$3 trillion USD per annum for the next 15 years. Critics do not see this as being feasible. The reduction in the number of people living in abject poverty can be attributed to the growth of China, while the MDGs have been mistakenly credited for this drop.[51] The SDGs have also been criticized due to the inherent shortcomings in the very concept of sustainable development and the inability of the latter to either stabilize rising carbon dioxide concentration or ensure environmental harmony.[52]

Another view is more positive. The SDGs were the first outcome from a UN conference that was not criticized by any major Non-Governmental Organization (NGO). Instead, there was broad support from NGOs. This is in stark contrast to the MDGs which were heavily criticized by NGOs. The MDGs dealt with the problems, the SDGs deal with the causes of the problems. The MDGs were about development while the SDGs are about sustainable development. Finally, the MDGs used a silo approach to problem, while the SDGs take into account the inter-linkages.

Nearly all stakeholders engaged in negotiations to develop the SDGs agreed that 17 goals were justified because the agenda they address is all encompassing.

Cross-cutting issues[edit]

Women and gender equality[edit]

Despite a stand-alone goal on gender equality, there is widespread consensus that progress on any and all of the SDGs will be stalled if women's empowerment and gender equality is not prioritized. Arguments and evidence from sources as diverse and as economically-oriented as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to expected sources such as UN Women, bolster the case that investments in women and girls impact national and global development in ways that exceed their initial scope.[53]

SDG-driven investment[edit]

Capital stewardship is expected to play a crucial part in the progressive advancement of the SDG agenda across all asset classes:

“No longer ‘absentee landlords’, [ pension fund ] trustees have started to exercise more forcefully their governance prerogatives across the boardrooms of Britain, Benelux and America: coming together through the establishment of engaged pressure groups […] to ‘shift the [whole economic] system towards sustainable investment’.”[32]

The boards of directors of large Dutch and Scandinavian public and sectorial pension funds were early adopters of this SDG-driven approach: in March 2017, Holland’s Pensionfund Metalektro (PME), the main retirement scheme for the metal and electrical engineering sector, announced it would bring rapidly 10% of its €45 ($49) billion investment portfolio in line with the UN SDGs [54]

Education[edit]

Education for sustainable development (ESD)[edit]

See main article: Education for sustainable development

Education for sustainable development (ESD) is explicitly recognized in the SDGs as part of Target 4.7 of the SDG on education, together with Global Citizenship Education (GCED), which UNESCO promotes as a complementary approach.[55] At the same time, it is important to emphasize ESD’s crucial importance for all the other 16 SDGs. With its overall aim to develop cross-cutting sustainability competencies in learners, ESD is an essential contribution to all efforts to achieve the SDGs, enabling individuals to contribute to sustainable development by promoting societal, economic and political change as well as by transforming their own behaviour.[56]

Massive open online course (MOOC)[edit]

Main article: Massive open online course

MOOCs can be seen as a form of open education offered for free through online platforms. The (initial) philosophy of MOOCs is to open up quality Higher Education to a wider audience. As such, MOOCs are an important tool to achieve Goal 4 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development ("Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all").[57] They could also make an important contribution to SDG 5: "Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls".[57]

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

Definition of Free Cultural Works logo notext.svg This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0 Licence statement: Making Sense of MOOCs: A Guide for Policy-Makers in Developing Countries, 17-18.

To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles please click here.

Definition of Free Cultural Works logo notext.svg This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0 Licence statement: Education for Sustainable Development Goals: Learning Objectives, 7.

To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles please click here.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "United Nations Official Document". Un.org. Retrieved 11 October 2016. 
  2. ^ "United Nations Official Document". Un.org. Retrieved 2016-10-18. 
  3. ^ "Secretary-General's remarks to the press at COP22". UN. 15 November 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2017. 
  4. ^ "Press release - UN General Assembly's Open Working Group proposes sustainable development goals" (PDF). Sustainabledevelopment.un.org. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 2016-10-18. 
  5. ^ "United Nations Official Document". Un.org. Retrieved 11 October 2016. 
  6. ^ "World leaders adopt Sustainable Development Goals". United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  7. ^ "Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development". United Nations - Sustainable Development knowledge platform. Retrieved 23 August 2015. 
  8. ^ "Breakdown of U.N. Sustainable Development Goals". Retrieved 26 September 2015. 
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ "Future We Want - Outcome document .:. Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform". Sustainabledevelopment.un.org. Retrieved 11 October 2016. 
  11. ^ "Millennium Development Goals". United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  12. ^ "UN General Assembly Creates Key Group on Rio+20 Follow-up, Press Release United Nations Division for Sustainable Development" (PDF). Sustainabledevelopment.un.org. Retrieved 2016-10-18. 
  13. ^ "UN DESA | DPAD | UNTT | UN Task Team on the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda". Un.org. Retrieved 2016-10-18. 
  14. ^ "Realizing The Future We Want" (PDF). Un.org. Retrieved 11 October 2016. 
  15. ^ "High Level Panel - The Post 2015 Development Agenda". Post2015hlp.org. Retrieved 11 October 2016. 
  16. ^ "The Report - High Level Panel". Post2015hlp.org. Retrieved 11 October 2016. 
  17. ^ "Project Everyone". Project-everyone.org. Retrieved 11 October 2016. 
  18. ^ "Why this is Sustainable Development Not Global Goals - Africa Platform". Africaplatform.org. Retrieved 11 October 2016. 
  19. ^ "Public SDGs or Private GGs? – Global Policy Watch". Globalpolicywatch.org. Retrieved 11 October 2016. 
  20. ^ "United Nations General Assembly Draft outcome document of the United Nations summit for the adoption of the post-2015 development agenda". UN. Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  21. ^ "Goal 1: No poverty". UNDP. Retrieved 13 April 2017. 
  22. ^ "Goal 2: Zero hunger". UNDP. Retrieved 13 April 2017. 
  23. ^ "Goal 3: Good health and well-being". UNDP. Retrieved 13 April 2017. 
  24. ^ "Goal 4: Quality education". UNDP. Retrieved 13 April 2017. 
  25. ^ "Goal 5: Gender equality". UNDP. Retrieved 13 April 2017. 
  26. ^ a b "Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation". UNDP. Retrieved 28 September 2015. 
  27. ^ Rao Gupta, Geeta (October 2015). "Opinion: "Sanitation, Water & Hygiene For All" Cannot Wait for 2030". Inter Press. Retrieved 23 October 2015. 
  28. ^ Batty, Margaret (25 September 2015). "Beyond the SDGs: How to deliver water and sanitation to everyone, everywhere". Retrieved 23 October 2015. 
  29. ^ Andersson, Kim; Dickin, Sarah; Rosemarin, Arno (2016-12-08). "Towards "Sustainable" Sanitation: Challenges and Opportunities in Urban Areas". Sustainability. 8 (12): 1289. doi:10.3390/su8121289. 
  30. ^ "Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy". UNDP. Retrieved 28 September 2015. 
  31. ^ "Goal 8: Decent work and economic growth". UNDP. Retrieved 28 September 2015. 
  32. ^ a b c Firzli, M. Nicolas J. (October 2016). "Beyond SDGs: Can Fiduciary Capitalism and Bolder, Better Boards Jumpstart Economic Growth?". Analyse Financière. Retrieved 1 November 2016.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Analyse_Financi.C3.A8re" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  33. ^ "Goal 9: Industry, innovation, infrastructure". UNDP. Retrieved 28 September 2015. 
  34. ^ "Goal 10: Reduced inequalities". UNDP. Retrieved 28 September 2015. 
  35. ^ "Goal 11: Sustainable cities and communities". UNDP. Retrieved 28 September 2015. 
  36. ^ "Goal 12: Responsible consumption, production". UNDP. Retrieved 28 September 2015. 
  37. ^ "Goal 13: Climate action". UNDP. Retrieved 28 September 2015. 
  38. ^ "Paris Climate Change Conference: COP21". United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  39. ^ Ansuategi, A; Greño, P; Houlden, V; et al. (May 2015). "The impact of climate change on the achievement of the post-2015 sustainable development goals" (PDF). CDKN & HR Wallingford. Retrieved 20 May 2015. 
  40. ^ "Sustainable Development Innovation Briefs, Issue 9" (PDF). March 2010. Retrieved 12 September 2016 – via UN.org. 
  41. ^ "Goal 14: Life below water". UNDP. Retrieved 28 September 2015. 
  42. ^ "Goal 15: Life on land". UNDP. Retrieved 28 September 2015. 
  43. ^ "Goal 16: Peace, justice and strong institutions". UNDP. Retrieved 28 September 2015. 
  44. ^ "Goal 17: Partnerships for the goals". UNDP. Retrieved 28 September 2015. 
  45. ^ "Technical report by the Bureau of the United Nations Statistical Commission (UNSC) on the process of the development of an indicator framework for the goals and targets of the post-2015 development agenda - working draft" (PDF). March 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2015. 
  46. ^ "New Open Working Group to Propose Sustainable Development Goals for Action by General Assembly's Sixty-eighth Session | Meetings Coverage and Press Releases". Un.org. 2013-01-22. Retrieved 2016-10-18. 
  47. ^ "Home .:. Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform". Sustainabledevelopment.un.org. Retrieved 11 October 2016. 
  48. ^ "The Future We Want; Outcome document of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development" (PDF). Uncsd2012.org. Retrieved 2016-10-18. 
  49. ^ Fan, Shenggen and Polman, Paul. 2014. An ambitious development goal: Ending hunger and undernutrition by 2025. In 2013 Global food policy report. Eds. Marble, Andrew and Fritschel, Heidi. Chapter 2. Pp 15-28. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  50. ^ "The Problem with Saving the World | Jacobin". www.jacobinmag.com. Retrieved 2016-02-19. 
  51. ^ "The 169 commandments". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2016-02-19. 
  52. ^ "Sustainable Development Goals 2016-2030: Easier Stated Than Achieved - JIID". 2016-08-21. Retrieved 2016-09-17. 
  53. ^ "Gender equality and women's rights in the post-2015 agenda: A foundation for sustainable development" (PDF). Oecd.org. Retrieved 2016-10-18. 
  54. ^ Tagger, Jérôme (21 March 2017). "European Pension Funds Tilt Capital Toward 'SDG Investing'". Impact Alpha. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  55. ^ Global Citizenship Education: Topics and learning objectives UNESCO, 2015 http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002329/232993e.pdf 
  56. ^ UNESCO (2017). Education for Sustainable Development Goals: Learning Objectives (PDF). Paris, UNESCO. p. 7. ISBN 978-92-3-100209-0. 
  57. ^ a b Patru, Mariana; Balaji, Venkataraman (2016). Making Sense of MOOCs: A Guide for Policy-Makers in Developing Countries (PDF). Paris, UNESCO. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-92-3-100157-4. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

The offline app allows you to download all of Wikipedia's medical articles in an app to access them when you have no Internet.
Wikipedia's health care articles can be viewed offline with the Medical Wikipedia app.