Joint Operation Arvand

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Joint Operation Arvand
Part of the Persian Gulf Conflict and the Cold War
Incident on Shatt al-Arab.png
Location of the operation
TypeShow of force
Location
ObjectiveEscorting Iranian shipping
Date22–25 April 1969
Executed by Iran
OutcomeIranian victory
CasualtiesNone

The Joint Operation Arvand (Persian: عملیات مشترک اروند‎, more known by its Persian acronym AMA, عما)[6] was a show of force operation[2] orchestrated in April 1969 by the Imperial Iranian Armed Forces following Iraqi claim for the sovereign right to Shatt al-Arab/Arvand Rud and threatening to block passage of vessels unless they fly Iraqi flag.[3]

On 22 April 1969, Iranian merchant ship Ebn-e-Sina, carrying a cargo of steel beams and flying Iranian flag, was escorted by Iranian heavily armed naval vessels, as well as jet fighters[4] and proceeded through the river into the Persian Gulf, in an 80-mile journey which took about six hours.[1] However, the Iraqi forces did not attempt to respond as it pledged.[4]

Both countries strengthened their land forces along the river bank, stationing artillery, tanks and anti-aircraft weapons. Iranian troops were positioned in the vicinity of Khorramshahr and Abadan, while Iraq put its forces in Basra on alert.[4]

Iranian freighter Arya Far passed through the river escorted by four gunboats three days later, with no disturbance.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Iranian Ship Challenges Iraq Estuary", The Advocate-Messenger, p. 16, 27 April 1969, retrieved 26 October 2017
  2. ^ a b c d Ward, Steven R. (2014). Immortal, Updated Edition: A Military History of Iran and Its Armed Forces. Georgetown University Press. p. 202. ISBN 9781626160651.
  3. ^ a b Abdulghani, Jasim M. (2012). Iraq and Iran (RLE Iran A). Taylor & Francis. p. 121. ISBN 9781136834264.
  4. ^ a b c d e Stürchler, Nikolas (2007). The Threat of Force in International Law. Cambridge University Press. p. 202. ISBN 9781139464918.
  5. ^ Charles P. Wallace (19 August 1988), "Iran, Iraq Still Fail to Bridge Waterway Dispute", Los Angeles Times, retrieved 26 October 2017
  6. ^ "Dialogue With General Hassani Sadi", Negin-e-Iran (in Persian), 3 (9): 8–40, Summer 2004