|Berchtold in his SA uniform|
15 April 1926 – 1 March 1927
|Preceded by||Julius Schreck|
|Succeeded by||Erhard Heiden|
|Born||16 March 1897
Ingolstadt, Imperial Germany
|Died||23 August 1962
Herrsching, West Germany
|Political party||National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi Party; NSDAP)|
|Battles/wars||World War I|
Berchtold served in World War I and upon his country defeat joined the German Workers' Party (DAP) a small right-wing extremist organization at the time. He remained in the party after it became known as the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi Party; NSDAP) and helped found the SA and later on the SS. Berchtold also spent much of his time writing for Nazi magazines and journals. He survived the war, but was arrested by the Allies. Berchtold was later released and died on 23 August 1962. He was the last surviving person to hold the rank of Reichsführer-SS and the only one to survive under it during the Second World War.
Born on 6 March 1897 in Ingolstadt, Joseph Berchtold served in World War I (1914-18) and held the rank of second lieutenant at the wars end. In early 1920, he joined the small right-wing extremist group the German Workers' Party (DAP). He remained in the party after it became known as the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi Party; NSDAP).
Career in the SA
Upon joining the party, Berchtold became a member of the Sturmabteilung ("Storm Detachment"; SA), a paramilitary wing formed to protect its speakers at rally's and to police Nazi meetings. Adolf Hitler, leader of the party since 1921, ordered the formation of a small separate bodyguard dedicated to his protection only instead of a suspected mass of the party in 1923. Originally the unit was composed of only eight men, commanded by Julius Schreck and Berchtold. It was designated the Stabswache ("Staff Guard"). Later that year, the unit was renamed Stoßtrupp-Hitler ("Shock Troop-Hitler").
On 9 November 1923 the Stoßtrupp, along with the SA and several other paramilitary units, took part in what would become known as the Beer Hall Putsch. The plan was to take control of Munich and then seize total power in Berlin. The coup d'état failed and resulted in the death of 16 Nazi supporters and 4 police officers. In the aftermath of the putsch both Hitler and other Nazi leaders were incarcerated at Landsberg Prison. The Nazi Party and all associated formations, including the Stoßtrupp, were officially disbanded.
When Hitler was released from prison on 20 December 1924, Berchtold was District Director of the Nazi Party in Carinthia, Austria and was leader of the SA there. After the re-formation of the Nazi Party on 20 February 1925, he again joined the party, documented as member #964. In March 1926, Berchtold returned to Munich from Austria where he had fled after the Beer Hall Putsch of November 1923. He became chief of the SA in Munich.
Career in the SS
On 15 April 1926, Berchtold became the successor to Schreck as chief of the Schutzstaffel ("Protection Squadron"; SS), a special elite branch of the party under the control of the SA. Berchtold changed the title of the office position which became known as the Reichsführer-SS. He was considered to be more dynamic than his predecessor, but was still unable to keep the party organizers at bay. Berchtold became disillusioned by the subordination of the SS to the SA. On 1 March 1927, he handed over leadership of the SS to his deputy Erhard Heiden.
Berchtold was from 1928 to 1945 an SA leader on the staff of the Supreme SA leadership (OSAF). In the following years, he operated primarily as a journalist and propagandist. In 1928, Berchtold founded the journal Die Stormtrooper ("The Storm Trooper"). Until January 1938, he was the main writer of the paper, which was published by the OSAF. Berchtold was also the author of various Nazi publications and staff of additional magazines.
Additional posts in the Third Reich were of secondary importance to Berchtold. From March 1934 to the end of the war, Berchtold was councilman of the town councilor in Munich. He belonged to the Reichstag from 29 March 1936. On 15 November 1935, Berchtold was appointed to the Reich Culture Senator. Furthermore, he belonged to the "Culture of SA" since 6 March 1936. From 29 April 1940, he served as a captain of the reserve on a temporary basis in the Wehrmacht.
|Berchtold's SA Ranks|
|18 December 1931||SA-Standartenführer|
|1 January 1933||SA-Oberführer|
|9 November 1934||SA-Brigadeführer|
|1 May 1935||SA-Gruppenführer|
|30 January 1942||SA-Obergruppenführer|
- Cook, Stephen; Russell, Stuart (2000). Heinrich Himmler's Camelot: the Wewelsburg Ideological Center of the SS, 1934-1945. Kressmann-Backmeyer. ISBN 978-0967044309.
- Hamilton, Charles (1984). Leaders & Personalities of the Third Reich, Vol. 1. R. James Bender Publishing. ISBN 0-912138-27-0.
- McNab, Chris (2009). The SS: 1923–1945. Amber Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-906626-49-5.
- Weale, Adrian (2010). The SS: A New History. London: Little, Brown. ISBN 978-1408703045.
|Reich Leader of the SS