Joseph E. McGrath

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Joseph E. McGrath (July 17, 1927 – April 1, 2007) was an American social psychologist, known for his work on small groups, time, stress, and research methods and for his excellence in mentoring graduate students.[1]


McGrath was born in DuBois, Pennsylvania, the last child of six. He served the U.S. Army from 1945 to 1946. He received a B.S. and an M.A. in Psychology at the [2] in 1950 and 1951, respectively.

He married Marion Freitag in 1952. They had four children: Robert (born 1954), William (born 1955), James (born 1958), and Janet (born 1959). In 1955 McGrath completed a Ph.D. in Social Psychology at the University of Michigan with thesis adviser Theodore M. Newcomb. Upon graduation, McGrath became research scientist and project director of Psychological Research Associates in Arlington Virginia for two years, and then vice president of Human Sciences Research, Inc. in McLean Virginia for three years. Wishing to return to basic research and academia, in 1960 McGrath accepted a visiting position in the Department of Psychology at the University of Illinois as research assistant professor and associate director of the Group Effectiveness Laboratory. In 1962 he received a tenure track appointment there as assistant professor. He was tenured as an associate professor in 1964 and promoted to full professor in 1966. McGrath served as head of the Psychology Department for five years, from 1971 to 1976. He became a professor emeritus in 1997 and remained active in his research and collaborations until his death in 2007.


McGrath taught several courses popular among Ph.D. students at the University of Illinois. These included the introductory course, Research Methods in Social Psychology, taken by generations of graduate students; an introductory course to Research Topics in Social Psychology; a recurring seminar on Small Groups; a Professional Problems seminar in which students learned to write grant proposals, develop career strategies, review papers for journals, respond to reviews, and collaborate; a Post Positivism seminar exploring the underlying assumptions of "normal" science and alternative assumptions, values, and methods; and a seminar dedicated to Feminist Scholarship in Social Psychology.

McGrath was particularly successful as a mentor and adviser to graduate students. McGrath mentored dozens of students and young scholars throughout his career, including Richard Hackman, David Brinberg, Janice Kelly, David Harrison, Andrea Hollingshead, Deborah Gruenfeld, Holly Arrow, Linda Argote, Kathleen O'Connor, Kelly Henry, Jennifer Berdahl, William Altermatt, and Franziska Tschan. McGrath was unusually generous with his time and collaborations with students, who enjoyed not only his extensive knowledge of the field and incisive intellect but the way in which he respected them as equals and encouraged their own interests and ideas.

McGrath loved to write what he called "doggerel" and composed the following titled "Growing From Advisor Into Mentor":

In early years I thought my job
Was keeping standards high
'Twas rigor that I sought to teach
With criticism wry

But later on I learned anew
The truth of feedback's fate:
That many barrels of vinegar
Does not one thought create

That snips of sugar, sagely used
Can motivate anew
That praise, like yeast, can leaven
The intellectual brew

I also learned that students
(Like our kids, by now all grown)
Had lives to live, and dreams to dream
Relationships to hone

That they were folks who needed
Their autonomy to claim
That "study" was a part of life
But not the whole damn game

But most of all I came to see
That what they most required
Was the surge of capability
That self-confidence inspired.

So what I best could do for them
Was not to scorn nor flatter
But rather to convince them that
Their own ideas matter.

Group dynamics[edit]

McGrath's work in group dynamics included the classification of group tasks into four basic goals. They are generating, choosing, negotiating and executing. McGrath further sub-divided these four creating 8 types of tasks. Type 1 is generating plans (planning tasks); type 2 is generating ideas (creativity tasks); type 3 is solving problems with correct answers (intellective tasks); type 4 is deciding issues with no right answer (decision making tasks); type 5 is resolving conflicts of view point (cognitive conflict tasks); type 6 is resolving conflicts of interest (mixed motive tasks); type 7 is resolving conflicts of power (contests, battles and competitive tasks); and type 8 is executing performance tasks (performances, psycho-motor tasks). McGrath created a circumplex depicting these eight tasks in quadrants which indicated each type of task as either conflict or cooperation and as either conceptual or behavioral. Creativity and Intellective tasks (types 2 and 3) were in the cooperation and conceptual quadrant. Decision-making tasks and cognitive conflict tasks (types 4 and 5) were in the conflict and conceptual quadrant. Mixed-motive tasks and contests/battles/competitive tasks (types 6 and 7) were in the conflict and behavioral quadrant. Performances/psycho-motor tasks and planning tasks (types 8 and 1) were in the cooperation and behavioral quadrant.

McGrath's circumplex of group tasks is referenced by Donelson R. Forsyth in his book Group Dynamics where he notes that while only one of McGrath's sub-groups of tasks may be utilized by some groups, there are groups that will perform tasks from multiple sub-groups of tasks. Groups focused only on generating goals are working towards creating new methods or using existing methods to achieve their goals while groups focused on choosing goals are deciding on a correct course of action or what they deem the best course of action from among various options. Groups focused on negotiating goals are working to resolve differences or competitive disputes and groups focused on executing are competing against other groups or performing. There are groups that will have mixed goals from the various types.[3]

Service to the profession[edit]



  • McGrath, J. E. (1964). Social Psychology: A Brief Introduction. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
  • McGrath, J. E., & Altman, I. (1966). Small Group Research: A Synthesis and Critique of the Field. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
  • Runkel, P. J. & McGrath, J. E. (1972). Research on Human Behavior: A Systematic Guide. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
  • McGrath, J. E. Martin, J., & Kulka, R. A. (1982). Judgment Calls in Research. Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE Publications Inc.
  • McGrath, J. E. (1984). Groups: Interaction and Performance. Inglewood, N. J.: Prentice Hall, Inc.
  • Brinberg, D. & McGrath, J. E. (1985). Validity and the Research Process. Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE Publishing Co.
  • McGrath, J. E. & Kelly, J. R. (1986). Time and Human Interaction: Toward a Social Psychology of Time. New York: Guilford Publications, Inc.
  • Kelly, J. R. & McGrath, J. E. (1988). On Time and Method. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publishing Co.
  • McGrath, J. E. & Hollingshead, A. B. (1994). Groups Interacting with Technology: Ideas, Issues, Evidence, and an Agenda. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications.
  • Arrow, H., McGrath, J. E. & Berdahl, J. L. (2000). Small Groups as Complex, Systems: Formation, Coordination, Development, and Adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publishing Co.
  • McGrath, J. E. & Tschan, F. (2004). Temporal Matters in Social Psychology: Examining the role of time in the lives of groups and individuals. Washington DC: APA Publications.

Books edited or co-edited[edit]

  • McGrath, J. E. (Ed.), (1970). Social and Psychological Factors in Stress. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
  • McGrath, J. E. (Issue Editor) (1981). "Judgment Calls: An unorthodox view of the research process". American Behavioral Scientist, 25 (2), Nov./Dec.
  • McGrath, J. E. (1983). "Social Issues and Social Change: Some Views from SPSSI's Past". Journal of Social Issues 39 (4). 
  • McGrath, J. E. (Ed.) (1988). The Social Psychology of Time: New Perspectives. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publishing Co.
  • McGrath, J. E. (Issue Editor) (1993). Time, Task, and Technology in /work Groups: The JEMCO Workshop Study. Small Group Research, 24, No 3.
  • McGrath, J. E. & Arrow, H. (Issue Editors) (1995/1996). Time, Technology, and Groups: Development, Interaction, and Task Performance over Time in Computer-mediated vs Face-to-Face Groups. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), 4, Nos. 1 & 2.

Chapters in books[edit]

  • Havron, M. D. & McGrath, J. E. (1961). The contributions of the leader to the effectiveness of small military groups. In Petrullo, L., & Bass, B. (Eds.) Leadership and Interpersonal Behavior. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc.
  • McGrath, J. E. (1964). Toward a "theory of method" for research on organizations. Chap. 27 in Cooper, Leavitt & Shelley, (Eds.) New Perspectives in Organization Research. New York: Wiley & Co. [Reprinted in: H. C. Schulberg, A Sheldon, & F. Baker (Eds.) Program Evaluation in the Health Fields. New York: Behavioral Publications, Inc. 1970; and in R. T. Mowday & R. M. Steers (Eds.) Research in Organizations: Issues and Controversies. Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear Publ Co., Inc. 1979, pp. 4–21).
  • McGrath, J. E. (1966). A social psychological approach to the study of negotiation. Chap. 6 in Bowers, R. V. (Ed.) Studies in Behavior in Orqanizations. Athens, GA. Univ. Georgia Press.
  • McGrath, J. E. (1968). A multifacet approach to classification of individual, group and organization concepts. In Indik, B. Berrien, K. (Eds.), People, Groups and Organizations. New York: Teachers College Press, pp. 191–215.
  • McGrath, J. E. (1974). Social Groups. Encyclopædia Britannica, Third Edition Vol. 17, pp. 959–964.
  • McGrath, J. E. (1976). Stress and behavior in organizations. Chap. 31 in Dunnette, M. (Ed.), Handbook of Industrial Organizational Psychology. Chicago: Rand McNally Co., Inc. pp. 1351–1395.
  • McGrath, J. E. (1981). Methodological problems in research on stress. Chap. 2 in Krohne, H. W. & Laux, L. (Eds.), Achievement, Stress, and Anxiety. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, pp.l9-48.
  • McGrath, J. E. (1982). Complexities, cautions and concepts for research on mass psychogenic illness. Chap 4 in Colligan, M., Pennebaker, J. W., & Murphy, L. (Eds.) Mass Psychogenic Illness: A social psychological Analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 57–85.
  • Brinberg, D., & McGrath, J. E. (1982). A network of validity concepts. In Brinberg & Kidder (Eds.) Forms of Validity, New Directions in Methodology for the Social and Behavioral Sciences #12. New York: Jossey-Bass.
  • McGrath, J. E.; Kravitz, D. (1982). "Group Research. In". Annual Review of Psychology 33: 195–230. doi:10.1146/ 
  • McGrath, J. E. & Rotchford, N., (1983). Time and behavior in organizations. In Cummings, L. & Staw, B. (Eds.) Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 5, Greenwich, CN: JAI Press, Inc., pp. 57–101.
  • McGrath, J. E. & Brinberg, D. (1984). Alternative paths for research: Another view of the basic vs. applied distinction. In Oskamp, S. (Ed.) Applied Social Psychology Annual, vol 5, Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE Publishing Co., pp. 109–129.
  • McGrath, J. E., Kelly, J. R. & Machatka, D. E. (1984). The Social Psychology of time: Entrainment of behavior in social and organizational settings. In Oskamp, S. (ed.) Applied Social Psychology Annual, vol. 5, Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE Publishing Co., pp. 21–44.
  • McGrath, J. E. (1985). Groups and the innovation process. Chap. 3 in Merritt & Merritt (Eds.) Innovations in the Public Sector. Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE Publishing Co.
  • McGrath, J. E. (1986). Studying groups at work: Ten critical needs for theory and practice. In Goodman, P. & Associates (Eds.) Designing Effective Work Groups. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc., Publishers, pp. 362–391.
  • McGrath, J. E. (1988). Introduction: The Place of Time in Social Psychology. Chapter 1 in McGrath, J. E. (Ed.) The Social Psychology of Time: New Perspectives. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publishing Co., pp. 7–17.
  • McGrath, J. E. (1988). Time and Social Psychology: An integration. Chapter 12 in McGrath, J. E. (Ed.) The Social Psychology of Time: New Perspectives. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publishing Co., pp. 255–267.
  • McGrath, J. E. (1989). Time Matters in Groups. Chap. 2 in J. Galegher, R. E. Kraut, & C. Egido (Eds.) Intellectual Teamwork: Social and Technical Bases of Cooperative Work. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, Inc., pp. 23–61.
  • Argote, L. & McGrath, J. E. (1993). Group Processes in Organizations: Continuity and Change. In: C. L. Cooper & I. T. Robertson (Eds.) International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1993. N. Y. John Wiley & Sons.
  • McGrath, J. E. & Gruenfeld, D. H. (1993). Toward a dynamic and systemic theory of groups: An integration of six temporally enriched perspectives. In: M. M. Chelmers & R. Ayman (Eds.) Leadership Theory and Research: Perspectives and Directions, (pp. 217–243). N. Y.: Academic Press.
  • McGrath, J. E. & Hollingshead, A. B. (1993). Putting the "Group" back in Group Support Systems: Some Theoretical Issues about Dynamic Processes in Groups with Technological Enhancements. In L. M. Jessup & J. S. Valacich (Eds.) Group Support Systems: New Perspectives (pp. 78–96). N.Y.: McMillan.
  • McGrath, J. E., Kelly, J. R., & Rhodes, J. E. (1993) A Feminist Perspective on Research Methodology: Some Metatheoretical Issues, Contrasts, and Choices. In S. Oskamp & M. Costanzo (Eds.). Gender Issues in Social Psychology: The Claremont Symposium on Applied Social Psychology. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications.
  • Arrow, H. & McGrath, J. E. (1995). Membership Dynamics in Groups at Work: A Theoretical Perspective. pp. 373–411 in B Staw and L. Cummings (Eds.) Research in Organizational Behavior, vol 17 N.Y.: JAI Press.
  • Hollingshead, A. B. & McGrath, J. E. (1995). Computer-Assisted Groups: A Critical Review of the Empirical Research. In: R. A. Guzzo & E. Salas (Eds.) Team Effectiveness & Decision-Making in Organizations. San Francisco CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Beehr, T. A. & McGrath, J. E. (1996). The Methodology of Research on Coping: Conceptual, Strategic, and Operational Level Issues. To appear in: Zeidner, M. & Endler, N. (Eds.) Handbook of Coping: Theory, Research and Applications. Wiley.
  • McGrath, J. E., Berdahl, J. L., & Arrow, H. (1995). Traits, Expectations, Culture and Clout: The Dynamics of Diversity in Work Groups. In S. E. Jackson & M. M. Ruderman (Eds.) Diversity in Work Teams: Research Paradigms for a Changing Workplace. Washington D. C.: American Psychological Association.
  • McGrath, J. E. (1995). Methodology Matters: Doing Research in the Behavioral and Social Sciences. In Baecker, R. & Buxton, W. A. S. (Eds.) Readings in Human-Computer Interaction: An Interdisciplinary Approach. 2nd edition. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.
  • McGrath, J. E. & O'Connor, K. M. (1995). Temporal Issues in Work Groups. In M. West (Ed.) Handbook of Workgroup Psychology. London: SAGE Publications.
  • McGrath, J. E. & Berdahl, J. L. (1998). Groups, Technology, & Time: Uses of Computers for Collaborative Work. In Tindale, R. S., Edwards, J., and Posavac, E. J. (Eds.) Applications of Theory and Research on Groups to Social Issues (pp. 205–228). N. Y.: Plenum Publishing Corp.
  • McGrath, J. E. (1998). A view of group composition through a group-theoretic lens. In D. Gruenfeld (Ed.) Research on Managing Groups and Teams, vol 1:Group Composition (pp. 255–272). N.Y. JAI Press.
  • Shupe, E. I. & McGrath, J. E. (1998). Stress and the sojourner. In C. L. Cooper (Ed.) Theories of Organizational Stress (pp. 86–100). Oxford UK: Oxford University Press.
  • McGrath, J. E. & Altermatt, T. W. (2000). Observation and analysis of group interaction over time: Some methodological and strategic choices. In M. Hogg & R. S. Tindale (Eds.) Blackwell's Handbook of Social Psychology, vol. 3 Group Processes. (pp. 525–556). London: Blackwell Publishers.
  • McGrath, J. E. & Argote, L. (2000). Group Processes in Organizational Contexts. In M. Hogg & R. S. Tindale (Eds.) Blackwell's Handbook of Social Psychology, vol. 3 Group Processes. London: Blackwell Publishers.
  • McGrath J. E. & Johnson, B. A. (2003). Methodology makes meaning: How both qualitative and quantitative paradigms shape evidence and its interpretation. In: P. Camic, J. R. Rhodes, and L. Yardley (Eds.) Qualitative Research in Psychology. Washington D.C.: APA Publications.
  • Fulk, J. & McGrath, J. E. (2004). Touchstones: A Framework for comparing Premises of Nine Integrative Perspectives on Groups. Chapter 11 in: Poole, M. S. & Hollingshead, A. B. (Eds.) Theories of Small Groups: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
  • McGrath, J. E. & Tschan, F. (2004). Dynamics in Groups and Teams: Groups as Complex Action Systems. Chapter 3 in: Poole, M. S. & Van de Ven, A. (Eds.) Handbook of Organizational Change and Innovation. Oxford, U. K.: Oxford University Press.
  • Poole, M. S., Hollingshead, A. B., McGrath, J. E., Moreland, R. L., & Rohrbaugh, J. (2004). Chapter 1 in: Poole, M. S. & Hollingshead, A. B. (Eds.) Theories of Small Groups: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
  • Semmer, N. K., McGrath, J. E. & Beehr, T. A. (forthcoming). Conceptual Issues in Research on Stress and Health. In: Cooper, C. (Ed.). Handbook of Stress and Health (2nd Ed.). New York: CRC Press.

Journal articles[edit]

  • McGrath, J. E. (1962). "The influence of quasi-therapeutic relations on adjustment and effectiveness in rifle teams". Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 65 (6): 365–375. doi:10.1037/h0047395. 
  • McGrath, J. E.; McGrath, M. F. (1963). "Effects of partisanship on perceptions of political figures". Public Opinion Quarterly 26: 236–248. doi:10.1086/267092. 
  • McGrath, J. E. (1963a). "Systems of information in small group research studies". Human Relations 16 (3): 263–277. doi:10.1177/001872676301600305. 
  • McGrath, J. E. (1963b). "A descriptive model for the study of interpersonal relation in small groups". Journal of Psychological Studies 14 (3): 89–116. 
  • McGrath, J. E.; Julian, J. W. (1963). "Interaction process and task outcome in experimentally-created negotiation groups". Journal of Psychological Studies 14 (3): 117–138. 
  • Hackman, J. R.; Jones, L. E.; McGrath, J. E. (1967). "A set of dimensions for describing the general properties of group generated written passages". Psychological Bulletin 67 (6): 379–390. doi:10.1037/h0024647. PMID 6046733. 
  • Kent, R. N.; McGrath, J. E. (1969). "Task and group characteristics as factors influencing group performance". Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 5 (4): 429–440. doi:10.1016/0022-1031(69)90035-3. 
  • Vidmar, N.; McGrath, J. E. (1970). "Forces affecting success in negotiation groups". Behavioral Science 15 (2): 154–163. doi:10.1002/bs.3830150206. 
  • Laughlin, P.; Chenoweth, R.; Farrell, B.; McGrath, J. E. (1972). "Concept attainment as a function of motivation and task complexity". Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (1): 54–59. doi:10.1037/h0033495. 
  • Levy, P.; Lundgren, D.; Ansel, M. Fell; Fink, B.; McGrath, J. E.; J. E., Mcgrath (1972). "Bystander effect in a demand-without-threat situation". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 24 (2): 166–171. doi:10.1037/h0033380. 
  • Wicker, A. W.; McGrath, J. E.; Armstrong, G. E. (1972). "Organizational size and behavior setting capacity as determinants of member participation". Behavioral Science 17 (6): 499–513. doi:10.1002/bs.3830170602. 
  • McGrath, J. E. (1978a). "Small group research". American Behavioral Scientist 21 (5): 651–674. 
  • McGrath, J. E. (1980a). "What are the social issues? Timeliness and treatment of topics in the Journal of Social Issues". Journal of Social Issues 36 (4): 97–108. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1980.tb02640.x. 
  • McGrath, J. E. (1980b). "Social science, social action, and the Journal of Social Issues". Journal of Social Issues 36 (4): 109–124. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1980.tb02641.x. 
  • McGrath, J. E. (1981). "Dilemmatics: The study of research choices and dilemmas". American Behavioral Scientist 25 (2): 154–179. doi:10.1177/000276428102500205. 
  • McGrath, J. E.; Martin, J.; Kulka, R. (1981). "Some quasi-rules for making judgment calls in research". American Behavioral Scientist 25 (2): 180–121. doi:10.1177/000276428102500206. 
  • McGrath, J. E. (1983a). "Looking back: An introduction". Journal of Social Issues 39 (4): 1–5. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1983.tb00170.x. 
  • McGrath, J. E. (1983b). "Looking ahead by looking backwards: Some recurrent themes about social change". Journal of Social Issues 39 (4): 225–239. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1983.tb00186.x. 
  • Kelly, J. R.; McGrath, J. E. (1985). "Effects of time limits and task types on task performance and interaction in four-person groups". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 49 (2): 395–407. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.49.2.395. 
  • McGrath, J. E. (1986). "Continuity and Change: Time, method, and the study of social issues". Journal of Social Issues 42 (4): 5–19. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1986.tb00865.x. 
  • Futoran, G. C.; Kelly, J. R.; McGrath, J. E. (1989). "TEMPO: A Time-based System for Analysis of Group Interaction Process". Basic and Applied Social Psychology 10 (3): 211–232. doi:10.1207/s15324834basp1003_2. 
  • McGrath, J. E.; Beehr, T. A. (1990). "Time and the Stress Process: Some Temporal Issues in the Conceptualization and Measurement of Stress". Stress Medicine 6 (2): 93–104. doi:10.1002/smi.2460060205. 
  • Kelly, J. R.; Futoran, G. C.; McGrath, J. E. (1990). "Capacity and capability: Seven studies of entrainment of task performance rates". Small Group Research 21 (3): 283–314. doi:10.1177/1046496490213001. 
  • McGrath, J. E. (1991). "Time, Interaction, and Performance (TIP): A Theory of Groups". Small Group Research 22 (2): 147–174. doi:10.1177/1046496491222001. 
  • Beehr, T. A.; McGrath, J. E. (1992). "Social support, occupational stress, and anxiety". Anxiety, Stress, & Coping 5: 7–19. doi:10.1080/10615809208250484. 
  • McGrath, J. E.; Kelly, J. R. (1992). "Temporal Context and Temporal Patterning in Social Psychology: Toward a Time-Centered Perspective for Social Psychology". Time and society 1 (3): 399–420. doi:10.1177/0961463X92001003005. 
  • McGrath, J. E. (1993). "Introduction: The JEMCO Workshop: Description of a longitudinal study". Small Group Research 24 (3): 285–306. doi:10.1177/1046496493243002. 
  • Hollingshead, A. B.; McGrath, J. E.; O'Connor, K. M. (1993). "Group Task Performance and Communication Technology: A Longitudinal Study of Computer Mediated vs Face-to-Face Work Groups". Small Group Research 24 (3): 307–333. doi:10.1177/1046496493243003. 
  • Arrow, H.; McGrath, J. E. (1993). "Membership Matters: How Member Change and Continuity Affect Small Group Structure, Process, and Performance". Small Group Research 24 (3): 334–361. doi:10.1177/1046496493243004. 
  • O'Connor, K. M.; Gruenfeld, D. H.; McGrath, J. E. (1993). "The Experience and Effects of Conflict in Continuing Work Groups". Small Group Research 24 (3): 362–382. doi:10.1177/1046496493243005. 
  • McGrath, J. E.; Arrow, H.; Gruenfeld, D. H.; Hollingshead, K. M.; O'Connor, K. M. (1993). "Groups, Tasks, and Technology: The Effects of Experience and Change". Small Group Research 24 (3): 406–420. doi:10.1177/1046496493243007. 
  • Straus, S. G.; McGrath, J. E. (1994). "Does the Medium Matter? The Interaction of Task Type and Technology on Group Performance and Member Reactions". Journal of Applied Psychology 79 (1): 87–97. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.79.1.87. PMID 8200874. 
  • McGrath, J. E. & Arrow, H. (1996). Introduction: The JEMCO-2 Study of Time, Technology, and Groups. Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 4, No. 2 & 3.
  • Lebie, Linda; Rhoades, Jonathan A.; McGrath, Joseph E. (1996). "Interaction process in computer-mediated and face-to-face groups". Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) 4 (2–3): 127–152. doi:10.1007/BF00749744. 
  • Arrow, Holly; Berdahl, Jennifer L.; Bouas, Kelly S.; Craig, Kellina M.; Cummings, Anne; Lebie, Linda; McGrath, Joseph E.; O'Connor, Kathleen M.; Rhoades, Jonathan A.; Schlosser, Ann (1996). "Time, technology and groups: An integration". Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) 4 (2–3): 253–261. doi:10.1007/BF00749749. 
  • McGrath, J. E. (1997). "Small Group Research: That Once and Future Field". Group Dynamics: Theory, Research & Practice 1 (1): 7–27. doi:10.1037/1089-2699.1.1.7. 
  • McGrath, J. E.; Arrow, H.; Berdahl, J. L. (1999). "Cooperation and conflict as manifestations of coordination in small groups". Polish Psychological Bulletin 30 (1): 1–14. 
  • McGrath, J. E.; Arrow, H.; Berdahl, J. L. (2000). "). The study of small groups, past, present, and future". Personality and Social Psychology Review 4: 95–105. doi:10.1207/S15327957PSPR0401_8. 
  • Harrison, D. A.; Mohammed, S.; McGrath, J. E.; Florey, A. T.; Vanderstoep, S. W. (2003). "Time matters in team performance: Effects of member familiarity, entrainment, and task discontinuity on speed and quality". Personnel Psychology 56 (3): 633–669. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2003.tb00753.x. 
  • Poole, M. S.; Hollingshead, A. B.; McGrath, J. E.; Moreland, R. L.; Rohrbaugh, J. (2004). "Interdisciplinary perspectives on small groups". Small Group Research 35: 3–16. doi:10.1177/1046496403259753. 
  • McGrath, Joseph E. (2007). "Review of Time Use: Expanding the Explanatory Power of the Social Sciences". Journal of Environmental Psychology 26 (2): 181. 
  • McGrath, Joseph E.; Tschan, F. (2007). "Temporal matters in the study of work groups in organizations". Psychologist-Manager Journal 10 (1): 3–12. doi:10.1080/10887150709336609. 


  1. ^ "Psychology Times - Fall 2007 - Department of Psychology University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign" (PDF). Department of psychology. Retrieved 2014-04-07. 
  2. ^ University of Maryland
  3. ^ Forsyth, D. R. (2010, 2006). Group Dynamics. Belmont: Wadsworth, Cenpage Learning.