Kaesong city walls
|Kaesong city walls|
The walls were built using the surrounding landscape as a defensive structure (Korean city walls were generally constructed on the crests of hills), following the principles of geomancy. Small walls have likely been present on the site since the Silla period; the walls were made from beaten earth during the Koryo dynasty. Many portions were rebuilt with stone during the 14th Century. A large portion of the stone walls still exist into modern times, and parts of the earthen walls are still visible. The exterior wall date from the 11th Century and the interior wall from the 14th Century.
The walls had around twenty gates, many of which survive today.
It is listed as a National Treasures of North Korea.
- Kungsong (Hangul: 궁성; Hanja: 宮城, Manwoldae; Hangul: 만월대; Hanja: 滿月臺)
- Hwangsong (Hangul: 황성; Hanja: 皇城, Parochamsong; Hangul: 발어참성; Hanja: 拔禦塹城)
- Naesong (Hangul: 내성; Hanja: 內城, Panwolsong; Hangul: 반월성; Hanja: 半月城)
- Oesong (Hangul: 외성; Hanja: 外城, Rasong; Hangul: 라성; Hanja: 羅城)
- KCNA (2003–2014). World Cultural Heritage-Historical Relics in Kaesong. Korea Computer Center in DPRKorea & Foreign Languages Publishing House. Event occurs at 04:39. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- CHABANOL, ELISABETH (2005). "Study of the Archaeological and Historical Sites of Kaesong". Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society Korea Branch. Royal Asiatic Society Korea Branch. 80: 35–58. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- Parochamsong - North Korean Human geography of the Institute for Peace Affairs (in Korean)
- Kaesong-yetsong - North Korean Human geography of the Institute for Peace Affairs (in Korean)