During the 1930 Civil disobedience movement, Chaudhry joined the Indian National Congress. Since then she was actively involved in the Indian Independence Movement and was imprisoned by the British authorities multiple times. She acted as the Senior Vice-chairperson during the 54th session of the All India Congress Committee. She was an elected member of the Constituent Assembly of India and after the constitution was adopted she served as a member of the Provincial Government of India till 1952. She was also a member of the Uttar Pradesh State Social Welfare Advisory Board.
In 1962, Chaudhry became a member of the 3rd Lok Sabha after winning the Indian general election, 1962 from Hapur as an official candidate of the INC. She defeated her nearest rival by a margin of 28,633 votes. Four collections of her stories; Unmaad (1934), Picnic (1936), Yatra (1947) and Bel Patra were published. Gender discrimination, exploitation of peasants and poor condition of widows were main themes in her works.
She married J.M. Chaudhry in February 1927.
- "Members Bioprofile: Chaudhri, Shrimati Kamala". Lok Sabha. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
- Saṃsadīya Patrikā (in Hindi). 43. Lok Sabha. 1997. p. 76.
- "Statistical Report on General Elections, 1962 to the Third Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 440. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
- Tharu, Susie J.; Lalita, Ke (1991). Women Writing in India: 600 B.C. to the early twentieth century. Feminist Press at CUNY. p. 472. ISBN 978-1-55861-027-9.