Kangaroo (novel)

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First edition (publ. Martin Secker)

Kangaroo is a 1923 novel by D. H. Lawrence. It is set in Australia.


Kangaroo is an account of a visit to New South Wales by an English writer named Richard Lovat Somers and his German wife Harriet in the early 1920s. This appears to be semi-autobiographical, based on a three-month visit to Australia by Lawrence and his wife Frieda, in 1922. The novel includes a chapter ("Nightmare") describing the Somers' experiences in wartime St Ives, Cornwall, vivid descriptions of the Australian landscape, and Richard Somers' sceptical reflections on fringe politics in Sydney. Kangaroo's movement, and the "great general emotion" of Kangaroo himself, do not appeal to Somers, and in this the novel begins to reflect Lawrence's own experiences during World War I.[1] Somers also rejects the socialism of Struthers, which emphasises "generalised love".

Australian journalist Robert Darroch – in several articles in the late 1970s, and a 1981 book entitled D.H. Lawrence in Australia – claimed that Lawrence based Kangaroo on real people and events he witnessed in Australia. The extent to which this is true remains a matter of controversy. Joseph Davis in D. H. Lawrence at Thirroul (1989) is sympathetic to the view that Kangaroo may be based on real events, but argues that it is impossible that Lawrence had time to meet clandestine political leaders in Sydney when he was too busy writing his novel in Thirroul. Davis feels it is more likely to have been a local south-coast identity associated with Thirroul who would have provided some of the details of Lawrence's political plot.[2]

"Kangaroo" is the fictional nickname of one of Lawrence's characters, Benjamin Cooley, a prominent ex-soldier and lawyer, who is also the leader of a secretive, fascist paramilitary organisation, the "Diggers Club". Cooley fascinates Somers, but he maintains his distance from the movement itself. It has been suggested by Darroch and others that Cooley was based on Major General Charles Rosenthal, a notable World War I leader and right-wing activist.[3] It has also been alleged that Rosenthal was involved with the Old Guard, a secret anti-communist militia.[4][5]

Similarly, according to Darroch, the character of Jack Calcott – who is the Somers' neighbour in Sydney and introduces Richard Somers to Cooley – may have been based on a controversial Australian military figure, Major John Scott,[4] who was both an associate of Rosenthal and an Old Guard official.[3][6] Another central character is Willie Struthers, a left-wing activist reputed to have been based partly on Willem Siebenhaar, who made Lawrence's acquaintance in Western Australia.[7]

Influence and film adaptation[edit]

Kangaroo is sometimes cited as an influence on the Jindyworobak movement, an Australian nationalist literary group, which emerged about a decade later.[1] Gideon Haigh saw fit to dub it "one of the sharpest fictional visions of the country and its people".[8]

It was adapted as a film, also called Kangaroo, in 1987, featuring Colin Friels as Somers, Judy Davis as Harriet and Hugh Keays-Byrne as "Kangaroo".

Further reading[edit]

  • D. H. Lawrence, Kangaroo (1994; originally published 1923), edited by Bruce Steele, New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-38455-9
  • Robert Darroch, D.H. Lawrence in Australia (1981), South Melbourne: Macmillan Co. of Australia. ISBN 0-333-33760-3


  1. ^ a b W. H. Wilde; Joy Hooton; Barry Andrews (1994) [1985]. The Oxford Companion to Australian Literature (2nd ed.). Melbourne: Oxford University Press. p. 459. ISBN 0-19-553381-X.
  2. ^ Joseph Davis, "D. H. Lawrence at Thirroul, (1989), Sydney: Collins, ISBN 0-7322-2640-6
  3. ^ a b A. J. Hill (1988) [print version]. "Rosenthal, Sir Charles (1875–1954)". Australian Dictionary of Biography (ADB). Australian National University (ANU). Retrieved 20 June 2007.
  4. ^ a b See, for example, the research notes of Sandra Darroch & Robert Darroch (2000–2001). "The Darroch Thesis, DHL in Australia research, 1972-2002, Part 1: September 1972-March 1990". D. H. Lawrence Society of Australia. Retrieved 8 July 2007.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ Moore, Andrew (2001). "What if Jack Lang had not been dismissed?". NSW Constitution website. NSW Department of Education and Training. Retrieved 3 July 2007.
  6. ^ Moore, Andrew (2006). "Scott, William John Rendell (1888–1956)". ADB. ANU. Retrieved 8 July 2007.
  7. ^ Naomi Segal; Edward Duyker (2006). "Siebenhaar, Willem (1863–1936)". ADB. ANU. Retrieved 20 June 2007.
  8. ^ Haigh, Gideon. Big pictures, artfully painted. 6 September 2008. http://content-rsa.cricinfo.com/magazine/content/current/story/361075.html (accessed 7 September 2008).

External links[edit]