Karoo and Ferrar denote a major geologic province consisting of flood basalt, which mostly covers South Africa and Antarctica, although portions extend further into southern Africa and into South America, India, Australia and New Zealand. It formed just prior to the breakup of Gondwana in the Lower Jurassic epoch, about 183 million years ago; this timing corresponds to the early Toarcian anoxic event and the Pliensbachian-Toarcian extinction. It covered about 3 x 106 km2 (Cox, 1988). The total original volume of the flow, which extends over a distance in excess of 6000 km (4000 km in Antarctica alone), was in excess of 2.5 x 106 km³ (2.5 million cubic kilometres).
- See Figure 5, p 176 in Segev, A. (2002). "Flood basalts, continental breakup and the dispersal of Gondwana: evidence for periodic migration of upwelling mantle flows (plumes)" (PDF). European Geosciences Union. Stephan Mueller Special Publication Series, 2: 171–191. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- Courtillot, V. E.; Renne, P. R. (2003). "On the ages of flood basalt events (Sur l'âge des trapps basaltiques)" (PDF). Comptes Rendus Geoscience. 335 (1): 113–140. doi:10.1016/S1631-0713(03)00006-3. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
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