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Karoo and Ferrar denote a major geologic province consisting of flood basalt, which mostly covers South Africa and Antarctica, although portions extend further into southern Africa and into South America, India, Australia and New Zealand.[1] It formed just prior to the breakup of Gondwana in the Lower Jurassic epoch, about 183 million years ago; this timing corresponds to the early Toarcian anoxic event and the Pliensbachian-Toarcian extinction. It covered about 3 x 106 km2 (Cox, 1988).[2] The total original volume of the flow, which extends over a distance in excess of 6000 km (4000 km in Antarctica alone), was in excess of 2.5 x 106 km³ (2.5 million cubic kilometres).[3]

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  1. ^ See Figure 5, p 176 in Segev, A. (2002). "Flood basalts, continental breakup and the dispersal of Gondwana: evidence for periodic migration of upwelling mantle flows (plumes)" (PDF). European Geosciences Union. Stephan Mueller Special Publication Series, 2: 171–191. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  2. ^ http://www.colby.edu/academics_cs/courses/GE127/upload/JourdanEtAl2005_KarooIgneous.pdf
  3. ^ Courtillot, V. E.; Renne, P. R. (2003). "On the ages of flood basalt events (Sur l'âge des trapps basaltiques)" (PDF). Comptes Rendus Geoscience. 335 (1): 113–140. doi:10.1016/S1631-0713(03)00006-3. Retrieved 8 August 2015.