Khalkhyn Gol

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Khalkhyn Gol
Khalkh River, Khalkha River, Ha-la-ha River, Ha-lo-hsin Ho
2.Khalkhin Gol Soviet offensive 1939.jpg
Native nameХалхын гол (in Mongolian)
Mongolian AimagDornod
Physical characteristics
 ⁃ locationPeople's Republic of China
 ⁃ coordinates47°04′51″N 120°29′16″E / 47.08083°N 120.48778°E / 47.08083; 120.48778
 ⁃ elevation1,443 m (4,734 ft)
MouthBuir Lake
 ⁃ location
 ⁃ coordinates
47°53′44″N 117°50′08″E / 47.89556°N 117.83556°E / 47.89556; 117.83556Coordinates: 47°53′44″N 117°50′08″E / 47.89556°N 117.83556°E / 47.89556; 117.83556
 ⁃ elevation
583.1 m (1,913 ft)
Length233 km (145 mi)
Basin size17,000 km2 (6,600 sq mi)
 ⁃ average25 m3/s (880 cu ft/s)

The Khalkh River (also spelled as Khalkha River; Mongolian: Халх гол; Ha-la-ha (哈拉哈); Ha-lo-hsin Ho) is a river in eastern Mongolia and northern China's Inner Mongolia region.[1][2] The river is also referred to with the Mongolian genitive suffix -iin as the Khalkhyn Gol or River of Khalkh.

Khalkyn Gol (Халхин-Гол) in Amur river basin

The river's source is the western slopes of the Greater Khingan mountains of Inner Mongolia. In its lower course, it forms the boundary between China's Inner Mongolia, and the Mongolian Republic[2] until around 48°01′59″N 118°08′03″E / 48.033179°N 118.134290°E / 48.033179; 118.134290, the river splits into two distributaries. The left branch (the Halh River proper) flows into the Buir Lake at 47°53′44″N 117°50′08″E / 47.895556°N 117.835556°E / 47.895556; 117.835556; discharge from that lake at 47°57′00″N 117°48′51″E / 47.950011°N 117.814270°E / 47.950011; 117.814270) is known as the Orshuun Gol [fr] (Mongolian: Оршуун гол, Chinese: 乌尔逊河; pinyin: Wūěrxùn Hé). The right branch, known as the Shariljiin Gol (Mongolian: Шарилжийн гол) flows directly into the Orshuun Gol at 48°04′12″N 117°45′20″E / 48.069891°N 117.755433°E / 48.069891; 117.755433. The Chinese–Mongolian border then follows the Shariljiin Gol for about an equal distance.

From May to September 1939, the river was the site of the Battles of Khalkhin Gol, the decisive engagement of the Soviet-Japanese border conflicts. Soviet and Mongolian forces defeated the Japanese Kwantung Army.[3]


  1. ^ Elstner, Werner (1993). Mongolei: Reisehandbuch (in German). Berlin: Schiller. p. 16. ISBN 978-3-925067-27-3.
  2. ^ a b United States. Department of the Air Force (1963). Characteristics of Manchuria, Mongolia and North China. Intelligence Activities, Volume 200, Issues 2-4. Washington, D.C. p. 69.
  3. ^ Schenk, Amélie; Galsan, Tschinag (Chinagiĭn) (2006). Mongolei (in German) (2nd ed.). Munich: C. H. Beck. p. 24. ISBN 978-3-406-49283-9.