Killing of Ilan Halimi
|Died||13 February 2006 (aged 23)|
|Cause of death||Injuries from torture|
|Occupation||Cell phone salesman|
The killing of Ilan Halimi (Hebrew: אילן חלימי) was the kidnapping, torture, and murder of a young Frenchman of Moroccan Jewish ancestry in France in 2006. Halimi was kidnapped on 21 January 2006 by a group calling itself the Gang of Barbarians. The kidnappers, believing that all Jews are rich, repeatedly contacted the victim's modestly placed family demanding very large sums of money. Halimi was held captive and tortured for three weeks, and died of his injuries. The case drew national and international attention as an example of antisemitism in France.
- 1 Kidnapping
- 2 Gang of Barbarians
- 3 Reburial in Israel
- 4 Public interest and reaction
- 5 Aftermath
- 6 See also
- 7 References
Halimi was a cell phone salesman living in Paris with his divorced mother and his two sisters.
On 20 January 2006, one of the perpetrators, Sorour Arbabzadeh (known as Yalda or Emma), a 17-year-old girl of French-Iranian origin, came to the phone store in Paris where Halimi worked and struck a conversation with him. She eventually asked for Halimi's number, which he gave to her, and left the store. The girl called him the next evening and told him to come to her apartment for a drink. He was lured to an apartment block in the Parisian banlieues where he was ambushed and held captive by the group upon arrival. No one saw or heard from Halimi until the next afternoon, when his sister received an email containing a picture that showed Halimi gagged and tied up to a chair with a gun to his head. In text, the abductors threatened his life and demanded 450,000 euros from his family, stating that they would kill him if they went to the police. Not having the money, though, Halimi's family had no other option than to contact the police.
The abductors, who called themselves the Gang of Barbarians, tortured him and sent phone and video messages to his family while they were in contact with the police. During the 24 days of abduction, the leader of the gang, Youssouf Fofana, managed to travel back and forth to his home country of Ivory Coast. At some point he was suspected of being related to the gang and was taken to the police station, but they were forced to release him due to a lack of proof of his connection to the group. The demand for ransom, initially elevated at 450,000 euros, diminished as the abductors got more anxious with the attention they were drawing from the police and media. Suspicious neighbours said they did not go to the police station out of fear while others said they did not want to intervene in a business that was not theirs.
After three weeks and no success in finding the captors, the family and the police stopped receiving messages from the captors. Halimi, severely tortured, more than 80% burned and unclothed, was dumped next to a road at Sainte-Geneviève-Des-Bois on 13 February 2006. He was found by a passer-by who immediately called for an ambulance. Halimi died from his injuries on his way to the hospital.
Some[who?] have criticized the police department for not understanding the antisemitic nature of the kidnapping. Their decision to keep certain matters secret was seen as counter-productive, and may have prevented a facial composite of "Emma", the girl who lured Halimi to the apartment. Investigation showed that more than twenty people, some of them teenagers, took part directly or indirectly in the kidnapping. Some of them later claimed they never knew his fate, and "Emma" (who was seventeen at the time), later sent a letter to his family to say how sorry she was.
A woman, referred to as Audrey L., turned herself in after the police had released a facial composite picture. She pointed to the Barbarians, a gang of African and North African immigrants who had perpetrated similar abductions in the past. In the subsequent days, French police arrested 15 persons in connection with the crime. The leader of the gang, Youssouf Fofana (born 1980), who had been born in Paris to parents from Côte d'Ivoire, fled to his parents' homeland together with the woman used as bait. They were arrested on February 23 in Abidjan and extradited to France on March 4, 2006.
The kidnappers originally thought Halimi was wealthy because he came from a Moroccan Jewish family, though he came from the same poor and working-class neighborhood on the outskirts of Paris as the kidnappers did. According to then Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy, members of the gang confessed that they believed all Jews to be rich and it motivated them to target several Jews.
The kidnappers demanded ransom, initially EUR 450,000, eventually decreasing to EUR 5,000. It has been claimed that the family of Halimi was told that if they could not raise the money, they should get it from the Jewish community.
In order to convince Halimi's parents their son had been kidnapped, the abductors sent a picture of the young man being threatened by a gun and holding a newspaper to prove the date and time.
The French police were heavily criticized because they initially believed that antisemitism was not a factor in the crime. Police have attributed to the banlieues' gang subculture a "poisonous mentality that designates Jews as enemies along with other 'outsiders,'" such as Americans, mainstream French, and Europeans in general. "If they could have gotten their hands on a (non-Jewish) French cop in the same way, they probably would have done the same thing," a retired police chief opined. This may have hampered the original investigation. Antisemitism is an aggravating circumstance (circonstance aggravante) in a murder case in France.
Ruth Halimi, Ilan's mother, subsequently co-authored a book with Émilie Frèche titled 24 jours: la vérité sur la mort d'Ilan Halimi, released April 2009. In the book, Ruth claimed that French police never suspected her son's kidnappers would kill the 23-year-old after three weeks in captivity in 2006, partly because they would not face the antisemitic character of the crime (as reported in the French daily Le Figaro). Émilie Frèche stated that "by denying the anti-semitic character, ... [the police] did not figure out the profile of the gang." The book details how Ilan's parents were told to stay silent during the ordeal and were ordered not to seek aid in order to pay the ransom, nor show their son's photo to people who might have come forward with information about his whereabouts.
In an interview with Elle Magazine on March 27, 2009, Ruth Halimi stated that "The police were completely off the mark. They thought they were dealing with classic bandits, but these people were beyond the norm." Halimi stated that she wrote the book to "alert public opinion to the danger of anti-semitism which has returned in other forms, so that a story like this can never happen again".
Gang of Barbarians
The crime was committed by a group of persons belonging to a gang calling themselves les barbares (The Barbarians). Many of them had criminal records and had been imprisoned. A total of 27 people were accused of involvement in the crime and were tried for kidnapping and murder in 2009. One person was acquitted and the rest were convicted. Gang leader Youssouf Fofana was sentenced to life imprisonment with a minimum of 22 years before the possibility of parole. The woman who had lured Halimi to his abduction was sentenced to nine years imprisonment. Two of his close associates, Jean-Christophe Soumbou and Samir Ait Abdel Malek, received 18 and 15 year prison terms respectively, and Malek's prison term was later increased to 18 years upon appeal. Six others convicted over their involvement received sentences ranging from 12 to 15 years imprisonment, and seven others received sentences ranging from 8 months to 11 years imprisonment. While Fofana chose not to appeal his sentence, 14 of the 27 verdicts were appealed by the prosecution. The convictions were upheld on appeal in December 2010. In 2017, a Paris court sentenced Fofana to an additional 10 years imprisonment for other extortions he had committed.
During the investigation it appeared that key members of the group were probably implicated in at least 15 other cases of kidnapping or racketeering. Posing as members of the National Front for the Liberation of Corsica or members of the French division of the PFLP, they threatened several high-ranking CEOs including Jérôme Clément, president of the European TV operator Arte, Rony Brauman, former president and co-founder of Médecins Sans Frontières, and the CEO as well as another high-ranking member of a large company selling home appliances. They sent threatening pictures of an unknown man dressed as a middle-eastern Arab in front of a picture of Osama Bin Laden. In another case, the owner of a large grocery store was directed to pay 100,000 euros.
In total, 27 individuals were under investigation and were subsequently put on trial. Among these:
- Youssouf Fofana (August 2, 1980), the self-proclaimed Brain of the Barbarians. He was born in Paris to immigrants from Côte d'Ivoire and served time in prison for various crimes including armed robbery, car theft and resisting arrest. In an interview he denied killing Halimi, but showed no remorse for his actions.
- Christophe Martin-Vallet, nicknamed Moko, a French man originally from Martinique, specializing in computers. He appears to have masterminded the kidnapping and to have been the lieutenant of Fofana.
- He is suspected of other kidnappings and was responsible for the honeypot activities of the girls.
- Jean-Christophe Soumbou, also known as Craps, Crim or Marc. Fellow inmate of Fofana. Imprisoned for car theft with violence. Supplied the car with which Halimi was transported. He is also suspected of other kidnappings.
- Jean-Christophe Gavarin, usually known as JC or by his nickname Zigo, one of the individuals who tortured Halimi. He was a minor at the time of the crime. He had been expelled from school and had been involved with the law because of a theft and possession of cannabis. He has admitted to pushing a burning joint in the face of Halimi.
- Samir Aït Abdelmalek, nicknamed Smiler, who was the owner of the apartment and is considered the right-hand man of Fofana (he had known Fofana for more than ten years). Had been convicted for possession of drugs and car theft. He also furnished the acid used to burn Halimi.
- Jérémy Pastisson involved in a number of kidnapping cases, his car was used to transport Halimi.
- Tiffenn Gouret, former girlfriend of Jean-Christophe Gavarin and friend of Arbabzadeh, supplied Fonfana with "bait". She is also suspected in other kidnappings.
- Sorour Arbabzadeh nicknamed Yalda (also known as "Emma"), a seventeen-year-old French-Iranian girl who acted as appât (bait, honeypot) to entrap Halimi.
- Sabrina Fontaine, was used as bait in other kidnapping cases.
- Audrey Lorleach, nicknamed Léa or Natacha, young student who was used as bait. She turned herself in and served 9 months in prison.
Others who were implicated:
- Gilles Serrurier (1967), nicknamed the concierge, was the caretaker of the apartment building to which Halimi was taken and who lent the gang the apartment and cellar in which they held and tortured Halimi.
- Yahia Touré Kaba, nicknamed Yaks, one of the jailers (gaolers).
- Fabrice Polygone, one of the jailers (gaolers).
- Jérôme Ribeiro, known as Coup de Tête (headbutt). Although he had left the group, he was promised a lot of money. One of the jailers (gaolers).
- Guiri Oussivo N'Gazi and Francis Oussivo N'Gazi, friends of Ribeiro who acted as one of the jailers (gaolers).
- Nabil Moustafa, known as Bilna, pizza delivery man, one of the jailers (gaolers).
- Cédric Birot Saint-Yves, known as Babas, friend of Nabil Moustafa, one of the jailers (gaolers).
Many others were implicated but their direct connection to the crime could not be proven.
The trial, which started on April 29, 2009, was conducted behind closed doors because two of the suspects were minors.
The Halimi family wanted the trial to be conducted openly. Francis Szpiner spoke for Ruth Halimi, saying, A public trial would have helped [people] better understand the criminal machine, to make parents and teenagers reflect. It's the law of silence that killed her son, it would be unbearable for the trial to remain silent.
The trial took 10 weeks.
Incidents during and around the trial
- A number of videos with Fonfana appeared on YouTube.
- Fofana appeared in court wearing a white T-shirt, smiling, pointing to heaven and saying Allāhu Akbar. He claimed he had nothing to say and would be silent to the grave. When asked his name and date of birth he answered: Je m'appelle arabe, africaine révolte armée barbare salafiste. Je suis né le 13 février 2006 à Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois. (My name is arab, armed african rebellion salafist barbarian army and I was born on February 13, 2006 in Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois: the date and place Ilan Halimi was found).
- Fofana threw a shoe at the empty benches and again when he was taken down, shouting All the Jews in the world are there [in the empty box], they are my enemies. This is an Arab attack with a booby-trapped shoe!
- Fofana claimed in court that he had friends who would "take pictures to identify people." Francis Szpiner, lawyer for the Halimi family, believed that Fofana was alluding to the jurors, and was implying that he was going to put a price on their heads.
Verdict and sentencing
Of the 27 people on trial, 3 were acquitted.
|Birot Saint-Yves, Cédric|
|Touré Kaba, Yayia|
|Oussivo N'Gazi, Francis|
|Oussivo N'Gazi, Guiri|
A number of others, whose implication was not direct, or related to other activities of the gang, received smaller sentences. Three persons were acquitted. Notable is that one person, for whom originally no sentence was asked, received a suspended sentence.
After the trial
Sorour Arbabzadeh, the then-17-year-old French-Iranian girl who acted as bait to trap Halimi, was sentenced to 9 years imprisonment. While serving her sentence in the Versailles women's prison, she seduced a guard and the director of the prison, Florent Gonçalves, who is now imprisoned himself. For this she was sentenced to four months imprisonment.
The sentences issued after the first trial were criticized as too lenient by some parties, while others such as the attorney general Philippe Bilger found the sentences "exemplary". Minister of Justice Michèle Alliot-Marie, demanded an appeal of 8 of the 17 heaviest verdicts.
Richard Prasquier, president of CRIF, France's main Jewish organization, said that a law may soon be available that would preclude closed-door trials in this type of case. "Perhaps in a year's time there will be a new trial, and perhaps it will be public."
A Halimi relative said: "The important thing for me is not handing out heavier jail terms, honestly. The important thing is to open this to the press and public and make it a learning experience."
The retrial was officially announced Monday July 10, 2009. It started on October 25, 2010, and ended on December 17, 2010, with all convictions upheld and time added to some sentences.
On February 22, 2008, six members of a group calling themselves Barbarians assaulted 19-year-old Mathieu Roumi in the same Paris suburb of Bagneux where Halimi was kidnapped. For two hours the attackers tortured the young man. One shoved cigarette butts into his mouth, another took issue with Roumi's Jewish origin (paternal), grabbed correction fluid and scrawled sale juif ("dirty Jew") and sale PD ("dirty faggot") on his forehead. When the issue of his sexual orientation arose, one of them placed a condom on the tip of a stick and shoved it in Roumi's mouth. The six men proceeded to scream at him and threaten that he would die the way Halimi did. The men were all arrested.
Reburial in Israel
Halimi was initially buried in the Cimetière parisien de Pantin. At the request of the family, the remains of Ilan Halimi were reburied in Har HaMenuchot cemetery in Israel on Friday, February 9, 2007. It was timed to allow his first Yartzeit, on Tu Bishvat, to pass before the reburial. The date and time (11:30 am) also marked "exactly one year after his burial in France according to the Jewish Calendar."
Public interest and reaction
The case was widely reported on both in and outside France.
Six French associations called for a mass demonstration against racism and antisemitism in Paris on Sunday, February 26. Between 33,000 (as estimated by police) and 80,000 to 200,000 (as estimated by the organizers) people participated in Paris, as well as thousands around the country. Present were public figures such as Philippe Douste-Blazy, François Hollande, Lionel Jospin and Nicolas Sarkozy. Also among the participants were Dalil Boubakeur, head of the Paris Mosque and Chairman of the Council of Muslims in France, and Cardinal Jean-Marie Lustiger. Right-wing politician Philippe de Villiers was booed by far-left militants and had to leave under police guard.
On May 9, the United States Helsinki Commission held a briefing titled "Tools for Combatting Anti-Semitism: Police Training and Holocaust Education" chaired by Commission Co-Chairman Chris Smith (a Republican representative) who said: "[Halimi's] tragedy made brutally clear that Jews are still attacked because they are Jews, and that our work to eradicate all forms of anti-Semitism in all its ugly forms and manifestations is far from done."
Tens of thousands of people marched through the streets of Paris, demanding justice for Halimi, on Sunday February 26, 2006. The kidnapping brought many Jews to speak out against antisemitism and racism, but also stirred discussion about whether Jews could still feel safe in France or not. Emigration to Israel rose as a result.
Ilan Halimi was initially buried in the Cimetière parisien de Pantin near Paris. The funeral in Paris drew a large Jewish crowd. He was reburied in Har HaMenuchot cemetery in Jerusalem, Israel on February 9, 2007.:20-23 A garden in the Jerusalem Forest was named after him. In May 2011, a garden in the 12th arrondissement of Paris where Halimi used to play as a child was renamed after him.
In 2017 The Washington Post revisited Ilam Halimi's murder, describing it as similar to the murder of Sarah Halimi:p.35 (Ilan is only distantly related to Sarah Halimi, who was also Jewish), because French authorities similarly refused to acknowledge the antisemitic nature of the murder or to investigate it as ethnically and ideologically motivated terrorism.
A number of books have been written about the case. Among them:
- 24 jours: la vérité sur la mort d'Ilan Halimi; Ruth Halimi and Émily Frèche; Éditions du Seuil; April 2009; ISBN 978-2-02-091028-6. This books was written by his mother, Ruth Halimi, about her experience of the events, together with Émilie Frèche. In late April 2014, a movie by French filmmaker Alexandre Arcady about this case was released. Entitled 24 Jours: La vérité sur l’affaire Ilan Halimi (24 Days: The Truth about the Ilan Halimi Case), it is based on the above-mentioned book.
- Si c'est un Juif : Réflexions sur la mort d'Ilan Halimi ; Adrien Barrot; Editions Michalon; January 2007; ISBN 978-2-84186-364-8
- Ilan Halimi, le canari dans la mine : Comment en est-on arrivé là ?; Yaël König et al; Editions Yago; June 2009; ISBN 978-2-916209-70-8
- Des Barbares Dans la Cité. Reflexions Autour du Meurtre d'Ilan Halimi; David Mascré; Éditions de l'Infini; April 2009; ISBN 978-2-918011-05-7
- A novel, Tout, tout de suite written by Morgan Sportés was inspired by the events and published in 2011. A film version of the novel, starring Marc Ruchmann as Halimi was released in 2015.
- König, Yaël (March 20, 2006). "Entretien avec Ruth Halimi" (in French). Primo-Europe. Archived from the original on May 4, 2009. Retrieved 2008-12-30. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Fields, Suzanne (April 3, 2006). "The Rising Tide of Anti-Semitism". The Washington Times. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
- Tale of Torture and Murder Horrifies the Whole of France, Michel Gurfinkiel, The New York Sun, February 22, 2006.
- Campbell, Matthew (April 2, 2006). "Barbarians of suburbs target French Jews". World News. London: Times Online. Retrieved May 12, 2009.(subscription required)
- Smith, Craig S. (March 5, 2006). "Torture and Death of Jew Deepen Fears in France". The New York Times. Retrieved May 11, 2009.
- McNicol, Tracy (28 April 2014). "A Horror Story of True-Life Anti-Semitism in France". Daily Beast.
- Rotella, Sebastian; Achrene Sicakyuz (February 26, 2006). "Parisians Stare at the Evil Within". Los Angeles Times. pp. A-1. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
- The Shocking Murder of Ilan Halimi, Aish HaTorah
- Frèche, Emilie (2009). 24 Jours. France: Seuil. ISBN 978-2-02-091028-6.
- Michel Gurfinkiel (February 22, 2006). "Tale of Torture and Murder Horrifies the Whole of France". The New York Sun. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- Bernard, Ariane; Craig S. Smith (February 23, 2006). "French Officials Now Say Killing of Jew Was in Part a Hate Crime". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
- http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3515340,00.html Philippe Ovadia, the head of the Jewish community living in the very same lower-class area as the place where Halimi was held captive.
- Naughton, Philippe (February 23, 2006). "Paris kidnap gang suspect arrested in Ivory Coast". The Times. London. Retrieved May 5, 2010.
- Devorah Lauter (April 2, 2009). "Murdered man's mother blames police". Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA). Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- "Court Sentences 16 Over Murder of Ilan Halimi". Haaretz. 2010-12-17. Retrieved 2018-12-28.
- "'Gang des barbares': 14 accusés seront rejugés en appel" ['Gang of Barbarians': 14 defendants will be retried on appeal]. Le Monde (in French). AFP. July 13, 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- "France: Convictions Upheld in Killing of French Jew". The New York Times. Associated Press. December 18, 2010. p. A9. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
- JTA. "Ilan Halimi's killer handed 10 extra years in prison". www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 2018-12-28.
- "La police cherche encore des membres du gang". Le Figaro (in French). February 27, 2006. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
- Steven Erlanger (July 11, 2009). "Man Sentenced to Life in Killing of Jew in France". The New York Times. p. A8. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- "Fofana, la confession scandale". Le Figaro (in French). February 28, 2006. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
- Lévy, Alexandre (February 27, 2006). "La composition de la bande se précise, poursuite des interrogatoires de Fofana" [The composition of the band is clarified, pursuant to questioning Fofana]. Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 2008-12-30.
- (in French) Article in Liberation, March 1, 2006
- His name was not published in the initial accounts
- (in French) AFP, June 30, 2009
- Articles 14 and 20 "Ordonnance n° 45-174 du 2 février 1945 relative à l'enfance délinquante" [Ordinance No. 45-174 of 2 February 1945 on juvenile delinquency] (in French). July 12, 2014. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- Julien Konczaty; Gonzalo Fuentes (October 22, 2010). "Affaire Halimi: "Il n'y a aucune justification au huis-clos"" [Halimi case: "There is no justification for closed session"]. l'Express (in French). Reuters.
- Flore Galaud (June 11, 2009). "Fofana expulsé de son procès après un lancer de chaussures" [Fofana expelled from his trial after a shoe throwing]. Le Figaro (in French). AFP. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- "Family of Slain French Jew Walks Out of Murder Trial". Fox News. Associated Press. April 30, 2009. Retrieved May 12, 2009.
- . European Jewish Press https://web.archive.org/web/20120220013549/http://ejpress.org/article/37916. Archived from the original on February 20, 2012.
The verdict was handed down late on Friday as Shabbat already started — by nine judges and a nine-member juryCite uses deprecated parameter
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- Patricia Tourancheau (July 11, 2009). "Peine maximale pour le cerveau du "gang des barbares"" [Maximum penalty for the brains of "gang of barbarians"]. Libération (in French). Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- "In France, Ex-Warden Jailed For Affair With Infamous "Femme Fatale" Inmate". World Crunch. February 16, 2012.
- Jérôme Bouin (July 12, 2009). "Affaire Halimi: un verdict qui ne passe pas" [Halimi Case: A verdict that does not pass [i.e. fails]]. Le Figaro (in French). Associated Press and AFP. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- ""Gang des barbares": peines alourdies requises en appel" ["Gang of Barbarians" burdened penalties required appeal]. Le Parisien (in French). December 9, 2010. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- Brett Kline (July 16, 2009). "Trials and Tribulations". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- "France: Convictions Upheld in Killing of French Jew". The New York Times. Associated Press. December 17, 2010. p. A9. Retrieved 2010-12-17.
- "La victime, ange ou démon?" [The victim, angel or demon?] (in French). BMFTV. March 6, 2008. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- Daniel Ben Simon (March 5, 2008). "Jewish teen tortured in French town where Ilan Halimi was killed". Haaretz.
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- "Hundreds Attend Reburial in Jerusalem of French Jew Murdered in Paris". The Jewish Federations of North America, Inc. Retrieved July 29, 2014.[permanent dead link]
- "The remains of Ilan Halimi, murdered in Paris last year in a vicious antisemitic attack, will be reburied in Jerusalem on Friday" (Press release). Jewish Agency for Israel. February 7, 2007. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
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- L'Express Archived October 1, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
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- "Article on the European Jewish Press website". Archived from the original on 2012-02-25. Retrieved 2013-06-05. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Paris remembers Ilan Halimi on 10th anniversary of murder". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Retrieved 2017-11-12.
- The Washington Post story said "no relation to" but a subsequent in-depth article, published in a different periodical, that named and quoted a number of relatives, said "a distant relative"
- "Terror in Paris". Ami Living. pages 32-39. 26 July 2017.
- McAuley, James (23 July 2017). "In France, murder of a Jewish woman ignites debate over the word 'terrorism'". Washington Post. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- Byrne, Clare (11 February 2019). "Tree commemorating murdered French Jew chopped down amid anti-Semitic spate". Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 11 February 2019. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "Un arbre planté à la mémoire d'Ilan Halimi retrouvé scié". Paris Match (in French). 11 February 2019. Archived from the original on 11 February 2019. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- Byron, Joseph (May 6, 2014). "New French film about the grisly murder of Ilan Halimi". European Jewish Press. Retrieved 2015-01-14.
- Le "conte rendu" de Morgan Sportès Le Monde. 25 August 2011
- Tom Gross (February 28, 2006). "The barbarians of Europe: The brutal murder of Ilan Halimi". The Jerusalem Post.
- Molly Moore (February 25, 2006). "Killing in France Seen as 'Wake-Up Call'". The Washington Post.
- Colin Nickerson (March 13, 2006). "Anti-Semitism seen rising among France's Muslims". The Boston Globe.
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