Kings of Osraige
The kings of Osraige (alternately spelled Osraighe and Anglicised as Ossory) reigned over the medieval Irish kingdom of Osraige from the first or second century AD until the late twelfth century. Osraige was a semi-provincial kingdom in south-east Ireland which disappeared following the Norman Invasion of Ireland. Except for a period in the sixth century, the kingdom was ruled continuously by a single dynasty which is known to history by several names: Dál Birn being the first general term for the native ruling lineage of Osraige, and later adopting the surname Mac Giolla Phádraig by the end of the tenth century. This same dynasty eventually outlived the collapse of the kingdom into a lordship, and remarkably continued into the first half of the 20th century as landed gentry of varying rank. Thus, the kings of Osraige form one of the oldest continuous dynasties in Western Europe. By 1541, the Mac Giolla Phádraig clan had adopted the surname Fitzpatrick, which is still in use today.
Osraige was largely a buffer state between the provincial kingdoms of Leinster and Munster. It was bounded to the south by the rivers Suir and Barrow, though it originally extended to the sea and its rulers had some influence over the Norse kings of Waterford. In the north, it may have once stretched over the Slieve Bloom mountains and reached the River Shannon, but in the historic era it generally stayed to the south of these mountains, the boundary generally being the river Barrow.
In a clockwise direction (starting at 12:00) it was bordered by the kingdoms or lordships of Éile, Ui Duach, Loigis, Ui Drona, Uí Cheinnselaig, Desi Mumhain, and Eóganachta Caisel. Its main town and dynastic capital was Kilkenny. The name Osraige is said to be from the Usdaie, a tribe that Ptolemy's map of Ireland places in roughly the same area that Ossory would later occupy. Other tribes in the vicinity were the Brigantes and the Cauci. The Osraighe themselves claimed to be descended from the Érainn people. Modern day County Kilkenny and part of west County Laois comprise the core area of what was this kingdom.
Genealogy and Succession
A number of important royal Ossorian genealogies are preserved. Notably, is MS Rawlinson B502, tracing the medieval Mac Giolla Phádraig dynasty back through Óengus Osrithe, who supposedly flourished in the first or second century. Another is a king list from the Book of Leinster (also known as "Lebor na Nuachongbála"). Recent analysis of ninth and tenth century regnal succession in Osraige has suggested that in peaceful times, kingship passed primarily from eldest to youngest brother, before crossing generations and passing to sons and nephews.
Early Kings of Osraige
- Óengus Osrithe (ca. 100 AD) Semi-legendary founder of the kingdom of Osraige.
- Loegaire Birn Buadach, a quo Dál Birn.
- Echach Lámdóit
- Niadh Corb
- Cairbre Caomh (not named in the Book of Leinster)
- Rumaind Duach
- Laignich Fáelad
- Bicne Cáech
Kings of Osraige to 1103
The following is a synchronism of the kings of Osraige from historic times until the death Gilla Patraic Ruadh in 1103, after which the kingdom experienced some political fracturing.
- Colmán Mór (died 574)
- Feradach Finn mac Duach (died 581 or 583), of the Corcu Loígde 
- Colmán mac Feradaig (died 603)
- Scannlan Mór mac Cinn Fáelad (died 644)
- Fáelán mac Crundmaíl (died 660)
- Tuaim Snámha (died 678)
- Fáelchar Ua Máele Ódrain (died 693)
- Cú Cherca mac Fáeláin (died 712)
- Fland mac Congaile
- Ailill mac Fáeláin
- Cellach mac Fáelchair (died 735)
- Forbasach mac Ailella (died 740)
- Anmchad mac Con Cherca (died circa 761)
- Tóim Snáma mac Flainn (died 770)
- Dúngal mac Cellaig (died 772)
- Fáelán mac Forbasaig (died 786)
- Máel Dúin mac Cummascaig
- Fergal mac Anmchada (died 802)
- Dúngal mac Fergaile (802-842)
- Cerball mac Dúnlainge (842-888) One of Osraige's most outstanding kings, he reigned during a turbulent period of Irish history and amidst Viking invasions, lead Osraige on a path to prominence in Ireland's politics, even becoming militarily dominant over Leath Moga. Leading his army, he is recorded as having slaughtered 1,200 Danes at Carn-Brammin (Bramblestown), in Co. Kilkenny in 845 AD, with many other victories besides. In 847 AD it is proposed that he had "Saint Canice's" Round Tower built.
- Riacan mac Dúnlainge (888-894)
- Diarmait mac Cerbaill (894-905) (deposed)
- Cellach mac Cerbaill (905-908)
- Diarmait mac Cerbaill (908-928) (reinstated)
- Cuilen mac Cellaig (928-933)
- Donnchad mac Cellaig (934-976)
- Gilla Patráic mac Donnchada (976-996)
- Cellach mac Diarmata (996-1003) Killed by his cousin, Donnchadh son of Giolla Pádraig.
- Donnchad mac Gilla Pátraic (1003-1039) (Also king of Leinster from 1033 to 1039) The Annals of Tigernach call Donnchad the "champion of Ireland".
- Gilla Patráic mac Donnchada (1039-1055)
- Muirchertach mac Gilla Patráic (????-1041)
- Domnall mac Gilla Patráic (1055-after 1072)
- Donnchad mac Domnaill (after 1072-1090)
- Gilla Patráic Ruad (1090-1103)
Kings of Osraige from 1103 to the Norman Invasion
Upon the death of king Gilla Patráic Ruadh in 1103, two smaller portions of the kingdom broke away from the central polity of Osraige; the area of Mag Lacha in the far north of Osraige became independently ruled by the Ua Caellaide clan, and Desceart Osraige ("South Osraige") in the very southern area of Osraige, ruled intermittently by rival members of the Mac Giolla Phádraig clan.
- Cerball (1103-c.1113)
- Domnall mac Donnchada Mac Gilla Patráic (????-1113)
- Finn Ua Caellaide (????-????) (ruled Clarmallagh independently from the rest of Osraige)
- Donnchad Balc mac Gilla Patráic Ruaid (after 1119-1123) Probably the same Donnchad who accompanied the great fleet led by Toirdhealbhach Ó Conchobhair, king of Ireland on a predatory excursion, along with king of Leinster Éanna son of Murchadh, to consume the food supplies of Munster.
- Donnchad Dub (c.1121-c.1121)
- Murchad Mac Murchada (c.1123-1126)
- Conchobar mac Cerbaill (1123-c.1126)
- Gilla Patráic mac Domnaill Mac Gilla Patráic (c.1126-1146) Killed by his distant relatives, the Uí Braonáin clan.
- Cerball mac Domnaill Mac Gilla Patraic (1146-1163)
- Murchad Ua Caellaide (????-????)
- Donnchad mac Gilla Patráic Mac Gilla Patráic (after 1151-1162)
- Domnall Mac Gilla Patráic (1162/63-1165)
- Donchadh Ua Donoghoe Mac Gilla Patráic (1162-1185) Blinded Éanna Mac Murchadha, crown-prince of Leinster.
- Diarmait Ua Caellaide (1170-1172) (lord of Clarmallagh, the northernmost part of Osraige)
- Maelseachlainn Mac Gilla Patráic (1185-1194)
Kings of Osraige from the Normans to the Tudors
The kingdom of Osraige did not fully disappear after the arrival of Norman mercenaries in Ireland, though it was greatly reduced in size. The lineage of Osraige's kings remained in power in the northern third of their original territory, having been pushed back through the arrival of William Marshal who sought to consolidate his wife's huge claim to Leinster, including Osraige. The lords who ruled this area were sometimes also known in the annals as "Princes of Ossory", kings of Upper Ossory, North Osraige or kings of Slieve Bloom. They maintained their independence from the Crown or any shire until the final submission of Barnaby McGillaPatrick in 1539 and his subsequent elevation to the title of 1st Baron Upper Ossory in 1541. However, because of the tumultuousness of the period, the record of succession is often ambiguous. The following list may include powerful members of different lines of the family, who may or may not necessarily have been inaugurated as king of Osraige per se, but who were likely recognized nonetheless as the de facto ruler or potential heir, and noteworthy enough for reference by the annalists.
- Donnell Clannagh Mac Gilla Patráic (fl. 1212-1219) Edmund Campion hailed him as a "peerless warrior".
- Donnagh mac Anmchadh mac Donnogh Mac Gilla Patráic (d. 1249) Hailed by the annalists as an outstanding captain and relentless foe of the English, he is recorded as often reconnoitering the English forces while wearing a variety of disguises.
- Jeffrey mac Donnell Clannagh Mac Gilla Patráic (d.1269) "King of Slieve Bloom".
- Eochaghan Mac Gilla Patráic(?) (d. 1281)
- Mollachlyn Mac Gilla Patráic(?) (fl. 1286) Paid the Crown £6 for peace in 1286, together with his brother Finn.
- Donnogh Mac Gilla Patráic (d. 1324) Donnogh Mac Gilla Patráic,"Lord of Ossory" was summoned by Edward II to campaign with him in Scotland.
- Donnell Duff Mac Gilla Patráic(?) (d. 1325) Slain by his own relatives.
- Donough mac Jeffrey Mac Gilla Patráic (d. 1329-30)
- Scanlan Mac Gilla Patráic (fl. 1333-6)
- Carroll Mac Gilla Patráic (d. 1345)
- Dermot Mac Gilla Patráic (fl. 1346) Launched an attach on the English garrison at Aghaboe; the nearby Abbey of which was burned as collateral damage in 1346.
- Maelechlainn mac Jeffrey Mac Gilla Patráic (d. 1367)
- Finghin (Fineen) mac Cellach Mac Gilla Patráic (d. 1383) Re-founded the burnt Abbey of Aghaboe for the Dominican Order in 1382.
- Mac Gilla Patráic (d. 1396) "Lord of Ossory"
- Finghin (Fineen) Mac Gilla Patráic (d. 1443) Styled "King of Ossory" by the annalist. He was murdered with two of his sons in Kilkenny at the behest of MacRichard Bulter.
- Seaghan (John) mac Finghin Mac Gilla Patráic (d. 1468) Buried with his wife Katherine, along with his son Brian and his wife Noirin O'More in "Kilpatrick's" mortuary chapel at the Priory of Fertagh, underneath a stone altar table carved with effigies of Seaghan and his wife Katherine in high relief.
- Geoffrey mac Finghin Mac Gilla Patráic (d. 1489) Styled "King of Ossory" and "Lord of Ossory"; brother of Seaghan (John). Another brother, also named Fineen, avenged his father's murder by slaying the son of MacRichard Butler.
- Brian na Luirech Mac Gilla Patráic (d. ca. 1511) Brian "na Luirech" ("of the mail coats") possess a several noteworthy genealogies amongst various annalists which trace his paternal descent back to Cerball mac Dúnlainge.
- Brían Óg Mac Giolla Phádraig (c.1485–1575) The last king of Osraige; he became the first great Irish lord to adopt the Tudor policy of "surrender and re-grant", and thereby became Barnaby Fitzpatrick, 1st Baron Upper Ossory. From him spring the Barons and Earls of Upper Ossory and Barons Castletown.
- Genealogies from Rawlinson B 502; CELT: http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G105003.html
- Digital images of Rawlinson B502 folios from Oxford Bodleian Library (Ossorian Genealogy is found on folio 70v): http://image.ox.ac.uk/show?collection=bodleian&manuscript=msrawlb502
- Book of Leinster, formerly Lebar na Núachongbála, online through CELT: http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G800011A/index.html
- Reges Ossairge ; 41 a (p. 191), found here: https://www.isos.dias.ie/english/index.html
- Early Irish Regnal Succession: A Case Study; by Jim Reid. https://www.academia.edu/6401329/Early_Irish_Regnal_Succession_A_Case_Study
- "County Kilkenny Ireland - Rulers and Clans". Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- From the Book of Leinster king lists and various Irish annals.
- According to the sources, Feredach Finn and his son Colmán were the last of a line of Corcu Loígde kings of Osraige. At the same time there were Osraige kings of Corcu Loígde. The two kingdoms appear to have been closely allied, however relations had spoiled causing the Osraige to kill Feradach. See FA4 (583)
- Medieval Ireland: An Encyclopedia (ed. Seán Duffy) Cerball mac Dúnlainge entry by Clare Downham: https://books.google.com/books?id=a7uTAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA123&lpg=PA123&dq=osraige+viking&source=bl&ots=OGldrar3UT&sig=YzW8BejTNRvScJFnqqHKe_zP_DI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiXwZve39zLAhXI4SYKHaE3ABQQ6AEIWzAO#v=onepage&q&f=false
- The Annals of Tigernach, T1003.3
- Annals of Loch Cé 1193.13, Four Masters 1194.6
- Carrigan, William (1905-01-01). The history and antiquities of the diocese of Ossory. Sealy, Bryers & Walker.
- Ware, Sir James (1809-01-01). Ancient Irish Histories: The Works of Spencer, Campion, Hanmer, and Marleburrough. Reprinted at the Hibernia Press.
- Annals of CLonmacnoise, 1249
- McFirbis's annals
- "Kings of Osraige, a.842-1176", pages 202-203, in "A New History of Ireland", volume IX, ed. Byrne, Martin, Moody, 1984.
- "The FitzPatricks of Ossory", T. Lyng, Old Kilkenny Review, Vol. 2, no. 3, 1981.
- Book of Leinster,Reges Ossairge at CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts at University College Cork
- "Kilkenny..." John Hogan/P.M. Egan, 1884
- "The Encyclopaedia of Ireland", B. Lawlor, Gill & McMillan, 2003. ISBN 0-7171-3000-2