Kings of Osraige

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Map of Osraige (circa 900)

The kings of Osraige (alternately spelled Osraighe and Anglicised as Ossory) reigned over the medieval Irish kingdom of Osraige from the first or second century AD until the late twelfth century. Osraige was a semi-provincial kingdom in south-east Ireland which disappeared following the Norman Invasion of Ireland. A number of important royal Ossorian genealogies are preserved, particularly MS Rawlinson B502, which traces the medieval Mac Giolla Phádraig dynasty back through Óengus Osrithe, who supposedly flourished in the first or second century.[1][2] and one in the Book of Leinster (also known as "Lebor na Nuachongbála").[3][4] Recent analysis of ninth and tenth century regnal succession in Osraige has suggested that in peaceful times, kingship passed primarily from eldest to youngest brother, before crossing generations and passing to sons and nephews.[5]

Early Kings of Osraige[edit]

The following kings are listed in all major genealogies, but originate from an early period in Irish protohistory, and likely stem from oral tradition.[6]

Kings of Osraige to 1103[edit]

The following is a synchronism of the kings of Osraige from historic times until the death Gilla Patraic Ruadh in 1103, after which the kingdom experienced some political fracturing.[7]

Kings of Osraige from 1103 to the Norman Invasion[edit]

Upon the death of king Gilla Patráic Ruadh in 1103, two smaller portions of the kingdom broke away from the central polity of Osraige; the area of Mag Lacha in the far north of Osraige became independently ruled by the Ua Caellaide clan, and Desceart Osraige ("South Osraige") in the very southern area of Osraige, ruled intermittently by rival members of the Mac Giolla Phádraig clan.

  • Cerball (1103-c.1113)
  • Domnall mac Donnchada Mac Gilla Patráic (????-1113)
  • Finn Ua Caellaide (????-????) (ruled Clarmallagh independently from the rest of Osraige)
  • Donnchad Balc mac Gilla Patráic Ruaid (after 1119-1123) Probably the same Donnchad who accompanied the great fleet led by Toirdhealbhach Ó Conchobhair, king of Ireland on a predatory excursion, along with king of Leinster Éanna son of Murchadh, to consume the food supplies of Munster.[12]
  • Donnchad Dub (c.1121-c.1121)
  • Murchad Mac Murchada (c.1123-1126)
  • Conchobar mac Cerbaill (1123-c.1126)
  • Gilla Patráic mac Domnaill Mac Gilla Patráic (c.1126-1146) Killed by his distant relatives, the Uí Braonáin clan.[13]
  • Cerball mac Domnaill Mac Gilla Patraic (1146-1163)
  • Murchad Ua Caellaide (????-????)
  • Donnchad mac Gilla Patráic Mac Gilla Patráic (after 1151-1162)
  • Domnall Mac Gilla Patráic (1162/63-1165)
  • Donchadh Ua Donoghoe Mac Gilla Patráic (1162-1185) Blinded Éanna Mac Murchadha, crown-prince of Leinster.[14]
  • Diarmait Ua Caellaide (1170-1172) (lord of Clarmallagh, the northernmost part of Osraige)
  • Maelseachlainn Mac Gilla Patráic (1185-1194)[15]

Kings of Osraige from the Normans to the Tudors[edit]

The kingdom of Osraige did not fully disappear after the arrival of Norman mercenaries in Ireland, though it was greatly reduced in size. The lineage of Osraige's Lords remained in power in the northern third of their original territory, having been pushed back through the arrival of William Marshal who sought to consolidate his wife's huge claim to Leinster, including Osraige. The lords who ruled this area were sometimes also known in the annals as ‘Princes of Osraige’, ‘Kings of Upper Osraige’ (or ‘North Osraige’), or ‘Kings of Slieve Bloom’; it was a period when the concept of Irish ‘Kingship’ was being replaced with ‘Lordship’.[16] They generally maintained their independence from the Crown or any shire until the final submission of Barnaby McGillaPatrick in 1537[17] and his subsequent conversion to the title of 1st Baron Upper Osraige in 1541,[18] however, from the mid 1400s to the early 1500s they were at times in alliance with the House of Ormond[19] as well as the House of Kildare.[20] Fitzpatrick historians such as Carrigan [21] and Shearman [22] could not, in their day, access all available records, and their interpretations of succession are often confusing and ambiguous. The following list may include powerful members of different lines of the family, who may or may not necessarily have been inaugurated as the Mac Gilla Pátraic per se, but who were likely recognized nonetheless as the de facto ruler or potential heir, and noteworthy enough for reference by the annalists and in key records such as Liber Ruber,[23] the Ormond Deeds [24] and the Kildare Rental.[25]

  • Donnell Clannagh Mac Gilla Patráic (fl. 1212-1219) Edmund Campion hailed him as a "peerless warrior".[26]
  • Donnagh mac Anmchadh mac Donnogh Mac Gilla Pátraic (d. 1249) Hailed by the annalists as an outstanding captain and relentless foe of the English, he is recorded as often reconnoitering the English forces while wearing a variety of disguises.[27]
  • Jeffrey mac Donnell Clannagh Mac Gilla Patráic (d.1269) "King of Slieve Bloom".
  • Eochaghan Mac Gilla Patráic(?) (d. 1281)
  • Mollachlyn Mac Gilla Patráic(?) (fl. 1286) Paid the Crown £6 for peace in 1286, together with his brother Finn.
  • Donnogh Mac Gilla Patráic (d. 1324) Donnogh Mac Gilla Patráic,"Lord of Ossory" was summoned by Edward II to campaign with him in Scotland.
  • Donnell Duff Mac Gilla Patráic(?) (d. 1325) Slain by his own relatives.
  • Donough mac Jeffrey Mac Gilla Patráic (d. 1329-30)
  • Scanlan Mac Gilla Patráic (fl. 1333-6)
  • Carroll Mac Gilla Patráic (d. 1345)
  • Diarmaid Mac Gilla Pátraic (fl. 1346) Launched an attack on the English garrison at Aghaboe; the nearby Abbey of which was burned as collateral damage in 1346.
  • Maelechlainn mac Jeffrey Mac Gilla Patráic (d. 1367)
  • Finghin (Fineen) Mac Gilla Pátraic (d. 1383/86) Founded the Friary at the Abbey of Aghaboe for the Dominican Order in 1382.[28]
  • Mac Gilla Pátraic (d. 1383/96) ‘Lord of Osraige’.[29]
  • Finghin Óg (‘The Younger’) Mac Gilla Pátraic ‘Lord of Osraige’ (c.1396–c.1417). In 1394 was among a number of Irish who submitted to Richard II.[30] Married Art Óg mac Murchadha Caomhánach’s daughter Sadhbh.[31]
  • Donnchadh Mór Riabhach ‘The Great, The Swarthy’ Mac Gilla Pátraic ‘Lord of Osraige’ (c. 1417–c. 1448) he is largely overlooked by Carrigan and Shearman. Referred to as ‘Donatus magnus’ in the Ormond Deeds[32] and ‘Chief’ in Annála Connacht.[33] He was the father of three sons all slain by the Butlers in 1443: Finghin, Diarmaid and Maeleachlainn Ruadh.[34]
  • Finghin Mac Gilla Pátraic (d. 1443) Styled ‘Kinglet’ by Shearman.[35] He and his brother Diarmaid were murdered in Kilkenny at the behest of MacRichard Butler.[36]
  • Finghin Mór Mac Gilla Pátraic ‘Lord of Osraige’ (ca. 1448–1468). His wife was the daughter of Edmund Butler.[37] Died of the plague.[38]
  • Seághan (John) mac Finghin Mór Mac Gilla Patráic (d. 1468)[39][40] Buried with his wife Katherine, along with his son Brian and his wife Noirin O'More in ‘Kilpatrick's’ mortuary chapel at the Priory of Fertagh, underneath a stone altar table carved with effigies of Seán and his wife Katherine O’Malloy in high relief.[41] The Annals of the Four Masters provide his pedigree as, ‘son of John, son of Fineen, son of Fineen, son of Fineen, son of Donnell’.[42]
  • Tadhg (Teague) Dubh (‘the Black’) mac Finghin Óg Mac Gilla Pátraic (d. 1487) Tanist of Osraige.[43] Once a cleric in training[44] he was rebuked by Pope Nicholas V for being among those, including the ‘White Earl’, as ‘more cruel than Pharaoh’.
  • Séafra (Geoffrey) mac Finghin Óg Mac Gilla Pátraic Styled ‘King of Osraige’ and ‘Lord of Osraige’[45] he was ‘Chief of his nation’[46] from 1468-1489; brother of Seán he likely lived to an old age since he was blind when he died.[47]
  • Brian na Luirech (‘of the mail coats’) Mac Gilla Pátraic (d. 1511), was the son of Seághan (John) Mac Gilla Pátraic and Katherine O'Molloy; his wife was Noirin O'More, daughter of Uaithne O'More, and sister of Melaghlin O'More, Lords of Laois. He constructed the sarcophagus tomb carvings in the mortuary chapel at Fertagh. He possess several noteworthy genealogies amongst various annalists who trace his paternal descent back to Cerball mac Dúnlainge.
  • Brian Óge Mac Gilla Pátraic (c.1485–1575) The last Lord of Osraige; he became the first great Irish lord to adopt the Tudor policy of ‘surrender and re-grant’, and thereby became Barnaby Fitzpatrick, 1st Baron Upper Ossory. From him spring the Barons and Earls of Upper Ossory and Gowran, and Barons Castletown. He was the father of many sons, including Brian the 2nd Baron Upper Ossory, and Florence Fitzpatrick, 3rd Baron Upper Ossory.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Genealogies from Rawlinson B 502; CELT: http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G105003.html
  2. ^ Digital images of Rawlinson B502 folios from Oxford Bodleian Library (Ossorian Genealogy is found on folio 70v): http://image.ox.ac.uk/show?collection=bodleian&manuscript=msrawlb502
  3. ^ Book of Leinster, formerly Lebar na Núachongbála, online through CELT: http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G800011A/index.html
  4. ^ Reges Ossairge ; 41 a (p. 191), found here: https://www.isos.dias.ie/english/index.html
  5. ^ Early Irish Regnal Succession: A Case Study; by Jim Reid. https://www.academia.edu/6401329/Early_Irish_Regnal_Succession_A_Case_Study
  6. ^ "County Kilkenny Ireland - Rulers and Clans". Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  7. ^ From the Book of Leinster king lists and various Irish annals.
  8. ^ AM582, AU584, AT584, AI585 According to the sources, Feredach Finn and his son Colmán were the last of a line of Corcu Loígde kings of Osraige. At the same time there were Osraige kings of Corcu Loígde. The two kingdoms appear to have been closely allied, however relations had spoiled causing the Osraige to kill Feradach. See FA4 (583)
  9. ^ Medieval Ireland: An Encyclopedia (ed. Seán Duffy) Cerball mac Dúnlainge entry by Clare Downham: https://books.google.com/books?id=a7uTAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA123&lpg=PA123&dq=osraige+viking&source=bl&ots=OGldrar3UT&sig=YzW8BejTNRvScJFnqqHKe_zP_DI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiXwZve39zLAhXI4SYKHaE3ABQQ6AEIWzAO#v=onepage&q&f=false
  10. ^ The Annals of Tigernach, T1003.3
  11. ^ T1039.7
  12. ^ T1119.5
  13. ^ T1146.3
  14. ^ T1168.2
  15. ^ Annals of Loch Cé 1193.13, Four Masters 1194.6
  16. ^ Simms, Katherine (1987). From Kings to Warlords: The Changing Political Structure of Gaelic Ireland in the Later Middle Ages”, p. 191. Boydell, Wolfeboro, N.H.
  17. ^ Great Britain. (1830). State papers: Published under the authority of His Majesty's Commission. King Henry the Eighth. Volume II, Part III. London: G. Eyre and A. Strahan, printers to the King's Most Excellent Majesty, etc.
  18. ^ Great Britain. (1830). State papers: Published under the authority of His Majesty's Commission. King Henry the Eighth. Volume III, Part III. London: G. Eyre and A. Strahan, printers to the King's Most Excellent Majesty, etc.</
  19. ^ Fitzpatrick, M. (2020). Mac Giolla Phádraig Osraí 1384-1534 AD Part I. Journal of the Fitzpatrick Clan Society 2020, 1, 1-17
  20. ^ Mac Niocaill, Gearóid (1992). “Crown surveys of lands 1540-41: with the Kildare Rental begun in 1518”, p. 191. Irish Manuscripts Commission, Dublin.
  21. ^ Carrigan, William (1905-01-01). The history and antiquities of the diocese of Osraige. Sealy, Bryers & Walker.
  22. ^ Shearman, John (1879). “Loca Patriciana: An Identification of Localities, Chiefly in Leinster, Visited by Saint Patrick and His Assistant Missionaries and of Some Contemporary Kings and Chieftains”. M. H. Gill, Dublin.
  23. ^ Lawlor, H. (1908). “Calendar of the Liber Ruber of the Diocese of Osraige”. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section C: Archaeology, Celtic Studies, History, Linguistics, pp. 159–208.
  24. ^ Curtis, E. (1932-37). “Calendar of Ormond deeds Vol. II-IV.” The Stationery Office, Dublin.
  25. ^ Mac Niocaill, Gearóid (1992). “Crown surveys of lands 1540-41: with the Kildare Rental begun in 1518”, p. 191. Irish Manuscripts Commission, Dublin.
  26. ^ Ware, Sir James (1809-01-01). Ancient Irish Histories: The Works of Spencer, Campion, Hanmer, and Marleburrough. Reprinted at the Hibernia Press.
  27. ^ Annals of Clonmacnoise, 1249
  28. ^ Burke, T. (1762). Hibernia Dominicana. Sive historia provinciæ Hiberniæ Ordinis prædicatorum. Per P. Thomam de Burgo, Coloniæ Agrippinæ ex typographia Metternichiana.
  29. ^ O'Clery, M., O'Clery, C., O'Clery, C., O'Mulconry, F., O'Duigenan, C., & O'Donovan, J. (1856). Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland, by the Four Masters, from the earliest period to the year 1616. Edited from MSS. in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy and of Trinity College, Dublin, with a translation, and copious notes, by John O'Donovan. Dublin, Hodges, Smith, and Co.
  30. ^ Johnston, D. (1977). Richard II and Ireland, 1395-9, [thesis], Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. Department of History, pp 612.
  31. ^ O'Byrne, E. (2001). War, politics and the Irish of Leinster, 1156-1606, [thesis], Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. Department of History, pp 218, pp 249.
  32. ^ Curtis, E. (Ed.). (1937). Calendar of Ormond deeds Vol. IV. Dublin: The Stationery Office.
  33. ^ Freeman, M. (1944). Annála Connacht, the annals of Connacht, A.D. 1224-1544. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
  34. ^ O'Clery, M., O'Clery, C., O'Clery, C., O'Mulconry, F., O'Duigenan, C., & O'Donovan, J. (1856). Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland, by the Four Masters, from the earliest period to the year 1616. Edited from MSS. in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy and of Trinity College, Dublin, with a translation, and copious notes, by John O'Donovan. Dublin, Hodges, Smith, and Co.
  35. ^ Shearman, J. (1879). Loca Patriciana: An Identification of Localities, Chiefly in Leinster, Visited by Saint Patrick and His Assistant Missionaries and of Some Contemporary Kings and Chieftains. Dublin: M. H. Gill.
  36. ^ O'Clery, M., O'Clery, C., O'Clery, C., O'Mulconry, F., O'Duigenan, C., & O'Donovan, J. (1856). Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland, by the Four Masters, from the earliest period to the year 1616. Edited from MSS. in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy and of Trinity College, Dublin, with a translation, and copious notes, by John O'Donovan. Dublin, Hodges, Smith, and Co.
  37. ^ Curtis, E. (Ed.). (1937). Calendar of Ormond deeds Vol. IV. Dublin: The Stationery Office.
  38. ^ O'Clery, M., O'Clery, C., O'Clery, C., O'Mulconry, F., O'Duigenan, C., & O'Donovan, J. (1856). Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland, by the Four Masters, from the earliest period to the year 1616. Edited from MSS. in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy and of Trinity College, Dublin, with a translation, and copious notes, by John O'Donovan. Dublin, Hodges, Smith, and Co.
  39. ^ Carrigan, "History and Antiquities of the Diocese of Ossory, vol. 1; p. 78
  40. ^ See Shearman's Ossorian Genealogy table No. III
  41. ^ Fertagh Church Ruins (1905). Association for the Preservation of Memorials of the Dead in Ireland. Journal for the year. Printed for the Association, Dublin.
  42. ^ O'Clery, M., O'Clery, C., O'Clery, C., O'Mulconry, F., O'Duigenan, C., & O'Donovan, J. (1856). Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland, by the Four Masters, from the earliest period to the year 1616. Edited from MSS. in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy and of Trinity College, Dublin, with a translation, and copious notes, by John O'Donovan. Dublin, Hodges, Smith, and Co.
  43. ^ Mac Carthy, B. & Hennessy, W. (Eds.). (1895). Annála Uladh: Annals of Ulster, otherwise, Annála Senait, Annals of Senat; a chronicle of Irish affairs from A.D. 431, to A.D. 1540. Dublin: H. M. Stationery Office.
  44. ^ Bliss W. (Ed.). (1893). Calendar of entries in the Papal registers relating to Great Britain and Ireland. London: H. M. Stationery Office
  45. ^ Carrigan, W. (1905). The History and Antiquities of the Diocese of Osraige. Dublin: Sealy, Bryers and Walker
  46. ^ Lawlor, H. (1908). Calendar of the Liber Ruber of the Diocese of Osraige. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section C: Archaeology, Celtic Studies, History, Linguistics, pp. 159–208.
  47. ^ Mac Carthy, B. & Hennessy, W. (Eds.). (1895). Annála Uladh: Annals of Ulster, otherwise, Annála Senait, Annals of Senat; a chronicle of Irish affairs from A.D. 431, to A.D. 1540. Dublin: H. M. Stationery Office.

References[edit]

  • "Kings of Osraige, a.842-1176", pages 202-203, in "A New History of Ireland", volume IX, ed. Byrne, Martin, Moody, 1984.
  • "The FitzPatricks of Ossory", T. Lyng, Old Kilkenny Review, Vol. 2, no. 3, 1981.
  • Book of Leinster,Reges Ossairge at CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts at University College Cork
  • "Kilkenny..." John Hogan/P.M. Egan, 1884
  • "The Encyclopaedia of Ireland", B. Lawlor, Gill & McMillan, 2003. ISBN 0-7171-3000-2

External links[edit]