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The monastery was founded in 1691 by Adrian—the Moscow Patriarch, who until 1690 were the Kazan Bishop. The name Kazichesky means Holy Martyrs of Cyzicus. The monastery was devoted to the martyrs because parts of their relics were brought to the monastery—according to the wishes of Adrian.
In the 1690s Vvedensky Cathedral (Presentation of Mary Cathedral) and Vladimirskaya Church (Church of Vladimir Icon of Virgin) were built. Vvedensky Cathedral was destroyed during the Soviet epoch.
Count Ilya Andreevich Tolstoy (the grandfather of Lev Tolstoy) is buried in the monastery.