Komati caste

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Komati Vaishya Community
Camattee Women (9842417734).jpg
Komati women in western India (c. 1855-1862)
Religions Hinduism, Jainism
Languages
Country
  • India
Region
Subdivisions

The Komati is an Indian trading community found primarily in South and Central India, that is currently organised as a caste. The members of the Komati caste are commonly engaged in banking, money lending and other business pursuits. The community consists of three sects who are followers of Hinduism, namely the Gaura or Gavara, the Thrivarnika and the Kalinga, along with the Jaina Komatis who are followers of Jainism.

Etymology[edit]

The origin of the word "Komati" is uncertain, and there are several speculative theories about it.[1][2][3]

The affinity of the word "Komati" to "Gomata" has led to speculation that the word is derived from "Gomata" (Gomateshwara), the name of a Jain deity.[4] This theory is supported by scholars such as C. Dwarakanath Gupta,[5] and Jaisetty Ramanaiah;[6] B.S.L. Hanumantha Rao also mentions this as the most reasonable of the theories, noting that it is a "derivation of the word from gomata, the great Jaina saint, which implies that they were followers of Gomata cult or were originally Jains".[7][8] Gupta theorises the Komatis were originally traders from Gouda, who adopted Jainism and followed the cult of Gomata. They later gave up Jainism, and embraced the Vedic religion.[5] Hanumantha Rao noted that the merchant classes preferred Jainism for gaining social status and respectability, and the erstwhile Banias became Gomati or followers of the Gomata cult in medieval times.[9]

An alternative etymology mentioned by Gupta derives the name of the caste from the name of a river. He states that the Komatis are said to have originally lived on the banks of Gomati, a local name for the Godavari river.[5] Yet another theory states that the name of the community is derived from the Telugu word "konu-ammu-atti" ("persons engaged in the exchange of goods").[3] British authors Edgar Thurston and R. V. Russell derived "Komati" from the Sanskrit term "Gomathi," believed to have the meaning of possessor or keeper of cows or Ko-mati to be fox minded which suggests having good business acumen to succeed in trade[10][11] A mythological legend mentioned in Kanyaka Purana states that Shiva gave them the name "Go-mati", which means "cow-minded".[5]

History[edit]

There is epigraphic evidence that the term Komati was in use by the 11th century CE.[12] The Komati merchants were associated with the town of Penugonda in the West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh.[13]

Inscriptions from the Godavari, Krishna and Guntor districts from 11th century refer to the merchants referred to as the "Lords of Penugonda".[14][15] The wealthier sections of the Komatis were addressed as Setti, Chetti or Chettiyar, all derived from the Sanskrit term Sreshthi.[16] Their trade associations bore the name nagaram. They also participated in long-distance trade networks called pekkandru (literally "the many").[17] During the times of the Vijayanagara Empire, they physically relocated themselves for commercial efficiency in various parts of South India. They are presently found in the states of Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Telangana, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh.[18]

After the arrival of European trading companies, the Komati merchants were among the local traders that partnered with them. The British referred to them as "Committys" and often used the term generically for all merchants on the Coromandel coast. Among the "Committys" that the British dealt with were the bulk sellers of cloth and other export commodities, money lenders and money changers, and the individual shop-keepers.[19] The second Chief Merchant of the British East India Company in Madras was a Komati called Kasi Viranna, appointed in 1669.[20] There was fierce competition in George Town between the Tamil-speaking Nadar merchants, who formed the 'left-hand' caste division and the Komati and Balija merchants, who were referred to as the 'right-hand' caste division. The competition between the divisions gave rise to riots and disputes in 1652 and 1707. The British were able to settle the disputes between left-hand and right-hand caste divisions amicably by resettling members to designated areas in George Town which is a small neighbourhood in the city of Chennai.[21]

Practices[edit]

Shanthi Matha Vasavi is the goddess (Kuladevata) of all Komatis.[22] Kanyaka Purana—a late medieval sacred text in Telugu—is the key religious text of Komatis.[23] Records are available for a Kanyaka Parameswari temple built on a garden owned by the Komati community in George Town, Madras in the early 18th century.[24]

Most Komatis are Vegetarian and give very high importance to Ahimsa which is the core of their belief systems. Their primary occupation historically was trade and most Komatis took to trade since trading as an occupation could co-exist with the principle of Ahimsa which is help all, hurt none.

Komatis regard themselves as a `twice-born' caste, meaning that they are allowed to wear a sacred thread following an initiation ceremony (the upanayana).[23] This status was contested by Niyogi Brahmins in Masulipatnam in the early 19th century in the Imperial British courts at considerable expense.[25][page needed]

Arya Vaishya[edit]

Arya Vaishya (Arya Vysya) or Gavara Komati (Gavara means respectable) is a sub group among-st the Komati's. The Kalinga Komatis are also Gavara[citation needed] but are called Kalinga since the regions they lived and traded were ruled by Kalinga Kings.

The Tri-varnika Komati community were formerly known as Komati Chettiars but now prefer to be referred to as Arya Vaishya.[26]

Inclusion in the Vaishya varna[edit]

The Nellore Choda kings in the 13th century are said to have established the varnashrama dharma in the Telugu country. The court poet and minister Tikkana treated Komatis as being equivalent to Vaishya in his Andhra Mahabharatam.[27]

The Komati merchants along with Balijas became notable as trading communities during the period of the Vijayanagara Empire (1325-1565 CE), and desired Vaishya status.[28]

The Mackenzie manuscripts provide a record of a copper plate grant of guru Bhaskaracharya (16th century CE), given by the 102 gotras which formed the Gavara grouping. Each Komati sub groups have their own version of Vasavi Purana and the Arya Vaisya's (Gavara) claim that their version of the Vasavi Purana was written by Bhaskaracharya their Bramhin head priest. The Vaisyas of Penugonda and 17 other towns belonged to a group of Vaisyas of 714 gotras. However, the 102 gotras of Gavaras separated out, and formed the Gavara Komati community.[29]

The claim to Vaishya status was contested, legally and otherwise, during the 18th and early 19th centuries, when Niyogi Brahmins opposed attempts by Vaidiki Bramhins to adopt the orthodox Vaishya rituals. Evidence of violent encounters between the powerful Mandri Mahanad alliance, controlled by the Niyogis, and the Vaidiki community were recorded between 1780-1820 in Masulipatnam, after which the matter was sent up to a civil court. The Vaidika (Vedic) Brahmin community supported the practices of the Komatis and, after much deliberation, the court allowed the practices to continue.[28]

The Gavara Komati registered the name of their community during the British Census of 1905 of the Madras Presidency as Arya Vysya.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ B. S. L. Hanumantha Rao (1995). Social Mobility in Medieval Andhra. Telugu University. p. 176. No satisfactory origin and meaning of the word Komati could so far be traced.
  2. ^ Syed Siraj ul Hassan (1920). The Castes and Tribes of H.E.H. the Nizam's Dominions. Asian Educational Services. p. 340. ISBN 978-81-206-0488-9. The etymology of the word ' Komti ' is uncertain and throws no light upon the origin of the caste.
  3. ^ a b Journal of the Andhra Historical Research Society. Andhra Historical Research Society. 1963. p. 212. While attempting to explain its origin, many stories have been invented, but none of them is satisfactory.
  4. ^ Śrīpāda Gōpālakr̥ṣṇamūrti (1963). Jain Vestiges in Andhra. Government of Andhra Pradesh. p. 88.
  5. ^ a b c d C. Dwarakanath Gupta (1999). Socio-cultural History of an Indian Caste. Mittal Publications. pp. 9–10. ISBN 978-81-7099-726-9.
  6. ^ Jaisetty Ramanaiah (1989). Temples of South India: A Study of Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist Monuments of the Deccan. Concept Publishing Company. p. 247. ISBN 978-81-7022-223-1.
  7. ^ Rao, B. S. L. Hanumantha. Social mobility in Medieval Andhra. p. 176.
  8. ^ B. S. L., 1995. Socio-cultural history of ancient and medieval Andhra, p. 155. Volume 172 of Telugu Viśvavidyālaya pracuraṇa. Telugu University.
  9. ^ Rao, Hanumantha B. S. L., 1973. Religion in Āndhra: a survey of religious developments in Āndhra from early times upto A.D. 1325, Part 1325, Issue 69 of Archaeological series. Department of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Andhra Pradesh, p. 175
  10. ^ Gupta, C. Dwarakanath; Bhaskar, Sepuri (1992-12-01), Vysyas: a sociological study, Ashish Pub. House, p. 10, ISBN 978-81-7024-450-9
  11. ^ Russell, R. V. (1916), The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India, Volume III of IV, Library of Alexandria, pp. 487–, ISBN 978-1-4655-8303-1
  12. ^ Madras, Andhra Historical Research Society, Rajahmundry,; Society, Andhra Historical Research (1964), Journal of the Andhra Historical Society, Andhra Historical Research Society, p. 212
  13. ^ Raychaudhuri, Tapan; Habib, Irfan; Kumar, Dharma (1982), The Cambridge Economic History of India: Volume 1, C.1200-c.1750, CUP Archive, pp. 120–, ISBN 978-0-521-22692-9
  14. ^ Sundaram, K. (1968), Studies in Economic and Social Conditions of Medieval Andhra: A.D. 1000-1600, Triveni Publishers, p. 58
  15. ^ Talbot 2001, p. 53.
  16. ^ Talbot 2001, p. 59.
  17. ^ Talbot 2001, p. 81.
  18. ^ Ramaswamy, Vijaya (2014), "Silk and Weavers of Silk in Medieval Peninsular India", The Medieval History Journal, 17 (1): 145–169, doi:10.1177/0971945814528422
  19. ^ Mukund, Kanakalatha (1999), The Trading World of the Tamil Merchant: Evolution of Merchant Capitalism in the Coromandel, Orient Blackswan, pp. 62–, ISBN 978-81-250-1661-8
  20. ^ Brennig, Joseph J. (1977), "Chief Merchants and the European Enclaves of Seventeenth-Century Coromandel", Modern Asian Studies, 11 (3): 321–340, doi:10.1017/s0026749x00014177, JSTOR 311502
  21. ^ Mines, Mattison (1992), "Individuality and Achievement in South Indian Social History", Modern Asian Studies, 26 (1): 129–156, doi:10.1017/s0026749x00015973, JSTOR 312720
  22. ^ Srinivasulu, K. (September 2002). Caste & Class Articulation of Andhra Pradesh (PDF). London: Overseas Development Institute. pp. Glossary of castes, 4. ISBN 0-85003-612-7. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
  23. ^ a b Price 2000, p. 35.
  24. ^ Neve, Geert de; Donner, Henrike (2007-01-24), The Meaning of the Local: Politics of Place in Urban India, CRC Press, pp. 102–, ISBN 978-1-135-39216-1
  25. ^ Price 2000.
  26. ^ Mines, Mattison (2014). "The Political Economy of Patronage, Preeminence and the State in Chennai". In Piliavsky, Anastasia. Patronage as Politics in South Asia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107056084.
  27. ^ Devi, Yashoda (1993), The History of Andhra Country, 1000 A.D.-1500 A.D.: Administration, literature and society, Gyan Publishing House, pp. 290–, ISBN 978-81-212-0485-9
  28. ^ a b Price, Pamela G. (2000). "Conflict Processing and Political Mobilization in Nineteenth Century South India". In John Jeya Paul; Keith E. Yandell. Religion and public culture: encounters and identities in modern South India. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press. pp. 33–55. ISBN 9780700711017.
  29. ^ Andhra Historical Research Society, 1964. Journal of the Andhra Historical Society, Volume 30, Parts 1-4, Pages 207-209.
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