Central India Agency
|Central India Agency|
|Agency of British India|
|•||Merger of previous political offices||1854|
|•||Independence of India||1947|
|•||1881||194,000 km2 (74,904 sq mi)|
|Density||47.7 /km2 (123.7 /sq mi)|
|This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Central India". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.|
The Central India Agency was a political office of the British Indian Empire, which covered the north-western half of present-day Madhya Pradesh state. The Central India Agency was made up entirely of princely states, which were under native rulers. The agency was bordered by the Central Provinces and Berar to the south; the Chota Nagpur princely states to the east, which were transferred from Bengal to the Central Provinces and Berar in 1905; the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh to the north; Rajputana to the northwest; and Bombay Presidency to the west and southwest. Lalitpur District, part of the United Provinces, split the Central India Agency into eastern and western portions.
The Central India Agency was created in 1854, by amalgamating the Western Malwa Agency with other smaller political offices which formerly reported to the Governor-General of India. The agency was overseen by a political agent who maintained British relations with the princely states and influence over them on behalf of the Governor-General. The headquarters of the agent were at Indore.
British hegemony over the states of Central India began in 1802, when several states in the Bundelkhand and Bagelkhand regions came under British control at the conclusion of the Treaty of Bassein between the British and the Maratha - Peshwa Bajirao II. British control of Bundelkhand expanded at the conclusion of the Second Anglo-Maratha War in 1805. The remaining states, including Gwalior, Indore, Bhopal and a number of smaller states in the regions of Malwa, Nimar, and Bundelkhand, came under British control with the end of the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1818. The estate of Chanderi was ceded to the Sindhia ruler of Gwalior in 1844 by the British, and Jhansi State was seized by the British in 1853 under the doctrine of lapse was added to the United Provinces. In 1921 Gwalior Residency was separated from the Central India Agency, and in 1933 the state of Makrai transferred to Central India from the Central Provinces and Berar.
The princely states in the area of the Agency, 148 in all, varied greatly in size. Eleven states held treaty relations with the British Government, and were known as the treaty states: Gwalior state, Indore, Bhopal, Dhar State, the two Dewas States, Jaora, Orchha, Datia, Samthar, and Rewa. The 31 sanad states had direct relations with the British Government, but not by treaty. These states, in Bundelkhand and Bagelkhand, were granted deeds (sanads) confirming rulers in possession of their states, in return for the rulers signing a written bond of allegiance (ikrarnama) to the British. The remaining smaller states and estates were known as mediatized or guaranteed states. Mediatized states were under the authority of a larger state, with the relationship between the states arranged through British mediation. Guaranteed states, found only in Malwa, were states under the authority of larger states, in which the British guaranteed whatever rights existed at the time of British occupation of the region at the conclusion of the Pindari War.
The princely states were closely related to one of several political officers, which were rearranged a number of times in the history of the Agency. Upon the British withdrawal from India in 1947, the political offices consisted of Indore Residency and the Bundelkhand, Bhopal, and Malwa Agencies.
Main article: Bundelkhand Agency
Bundelkhand Agency was bounded by Bagelkhand to the east, the United Provinces to the north, Lalitpur District to the west, and the Central Provinces to the south. Bagelkhand Agency was separated from Bundelkhand in 1871. In 1900 it included 9 gstates, the most important of which were Orchha, Panna, Samthar, Charkhari, Chhatarpur, Datia, Bijawar and Ajaigarh. The agency also included 13 estates and the pargana of Alampur, the latter belonging to Indore State.
In 1931, all of the states under the Baghelkhand Agency apart from Rewa were transferred back to Bundelkhand.
Main article: Bagelkhand Agency
In 1931, all of the states but Rewa were transferred back to Bundelkhand, and in 1933 Rewa was transferred to the Indore Residency.
Gwalior Residency was placed under the Central India Agency in 1854, and separated from Central India Agency in 1921. It included the following, among other smaller states:
Bhopal Agency, 11,653 sq mi (30,180 km2), which included the following:
- Dewas Junior & Dewas Senior (transferred to Malwa Agency in 1907, and to Bhopal Agency in 1933)
- Makrai (transferred to Bhopal Agency in 1933 from the Central Provinces and Berar)
In 1925, the Malwa Agency was amalgamated with Bhopawar Agency.
Bhopawar Agency included the princely states of:
Upon the British withdrawal from India in 1947, the rulers of the princely states in this area all chose to accede to the new Union of India. The eastern portion of Central India Agency, including Bagelkhand and Bundelkhand agencies, became the new state Vindhya Pradesh. The western portion, including Bhopal, Malwa, and Bhopawar agencies and the Gwalior and Indore residencies, became the new state of Madhya Bharat. Bhopal became a separate state. Makrai was transferred to Madhya Pradesh, which had been created from the former Central Provinces and Berar in 1950. In 1956, the states of Vindhya Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, and Bhopal were merged into Madhya Pradesh. Later another state, Chhattisgarh, was formed from the area that was formerly Madhya Pradesh.
- List of Indian princely states
- List of Maratha dynasties and states
- List of Rajput dynasties and states
- Maratha Empire
- Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 9, p. 74.
- About Central India, "Attracting pilgrims and tourists from the world over, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh constitute the geographic heart of India."
- Hunter, William Wilson, Sir, et al. (1908). Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 12. 1908-1931; Clarendon Press, Oxford.
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