Kummer's congruence

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

In mathematics, Kummer's congruences are some congruences involving Bernoulli numbers, found by Ernst Eduard Kummer (1851).

Kubota & Leopoldt (1964) used Kummer's congruences to define the p-adic zeta function.


The simplest form of Kummer's congruence states that

where p is a prime, h and k are positive even integers not divisible by p−1 and the numbers Bh are Bernoulli numbers.

More generally if h and k are positive even integers not divisible by p − 1, then


where φ(pa+1) is the Euler totient function, evaluated at pa+1 and a is a non negative integer. At a = 0, the expression takes the simpler form, as seen above. The two sides of the Kummer congruence are essentially values of the p-adic zeta function, and the Kummer congruences imply that the p-adic zeta function for negative integers is continuous, so can be extended by continuity to all p-adic integers.

See also[edit]