Lactoris fernandeziana is a flowering shrub endemic to the cloud forest of Masatierra — Robinson Crusoe Island, of the Juan Fernández Islands archipelago. It was formerly placed in Aristolochiaceae, but as of the APG III (2009) is now placed alone in the family Lactoridaceae, in the order Piperales.
Lactoris fernandeziana seems to be wind-pollinated. The wild population of about 1000 plants has low genetic diversity, and grows on foggy and rainy slopes, usually as an understory plant but sometimes in full sun.
Cultivation of seedlings has generally been unsuccessful, although cuttings have worked better and better knowledge of preferred growing conditions may make cultivation easier.
In the fossil record, pollen has been found which seems to be related to the living Lactoris species.
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- Favio González; Paula Rudall (2001). "The questionable affinities of Lactoris: evidence from branching pattern, inflorescence morphology, and stipule development". American Journal of Botany. 88 (12): 2143–2150. doi:10.2307/3558375. JSTOR 3558375. PMID 21669646.
- Daniel L. Nickrent, Albert Blarer, Yin-Long Qiu, Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis and Michael Zanis (2002). "Molecular data place Hydnoraceae with Aristolochiaceae". American Journal of Botany. 89 (11): 1809–1817. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.11.1809. PMID 21665609.
- Gabriel Bernardello; Gregory J. Anderson; Patricio Lopez S.; Maryke A. Cleland; Tod F. Stuessy; Daniel J. Crawford (1999). "Reproductive biology of Lactoris fernandeziana (Lactoridaceae)". American Journal of Botany. 86 (6): 829–840. doi:10.2307/2656704. JSTOR 2656704. PMID 10371725.