Mẫu Thượng Ngàn

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Lâm Cung Thánh Mẫu (林宮聖母) or Mẫu Thượng Ngàn or Bà Chúa Thượng Ngàn (Princess of the Forest) is ruler of the Forest Palace among the spirits of the Four Palaces in Vietnamese indigenous religion.[1] In legend the Princess of the Forest was the daughter of prince Sơn Tinh and Mỵ Nương, công chúa Quế Mỵ Nương King Hung's daughter from the legend of the rivalry between Sơn Tinh and the sea god Thủy Tinh.[2] Many natural features around Vietnam feature shrines to her, such as the Suối Mỡ thermal springs area near the town of Bắc Giang.[3]


  1. ^ Hy V. Luong - Tradition, Revolution, and Market Economy in a North Vietnamese ... - Page 3072010 "In Sơn-Dương, many of the non-Buddhist deities — mẫu thượng thiên (goddess of the upper sky), mẫu thượng ngàn (goddess of the highlands), mẫu Thoải (goddess of water), Hắc hổ (black tigers), etc.— were worshipped in the house.."
  2. ^ Tuyé̂t Thanh Lê Phụ nữ miè̂n nam Page 12 1993 "Among the popular Goddesses, there were many famous Goddesses such as Ba Chu Thuong Ngan (Princess of Forest) who was the daughter of Son Tinh and My Nuong (King Hung's daughter). Mrs Mau Thoai was the sea King's wife who"
  3. ^ Minh trị Lưu Historical remains & beautiful places of Hanoi and the surrounding area Page 268 2000 "Suối Mơ Relics is in Nghia Phương commune, Lục Ngạn district, 37 km from Bắc Giang town. It is dedicated to God of the soil, Lady Lord of Forestry princess Quế Mỵ Nương, daughter of the 16th Hùng King."