Le Temps (Paris)
Founded in 1861 by Edmund Chojecki (writing under the pen name "Charles Edmond") and Auguste Nefftzer, Le Temps was under Nefftzer's direction for ten years, when Adrien Hébrard took his place. The early issues of the newspaper reflected Nefftzer's liberal philosophy as well as his Protestantism, and had considerable trouble achieving readership. Nefftzer had to frequently turn to friends in Alsace who were able to help support Le Temps financially. However, circulation continued to grow, from scarcely 3,000 in 1861, to 11,000 in 1869, to 22,000 in 1880. Le Temps soon became the most important newspaper of the French Republic.
Le Temps came out of the Nazi occupation politically compromised due to accusations of collaboration with the Nazi regime. At Charles de Gaulle's request, Le Monde was founded on 19 December 1944 to replace Le Temps as the newspaper of record, borrowing the layout and typeface of Le Temps for the new newspaper.
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