|Born||January 15, 1931|
Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.
|Education||Art Students League of New York|
|Known for||Sculpture, Drawing, Printmaking|
|Awards||Fulbright scholarship, Rome 1957-1958; Louis Comfort Tiffany Award, 1959|
Lee Bontecou (born January 15, 1931 in Providence, Rhode Island) is an American sculptor and printmaker and a pioneer figure in the New York art world. She kept her work consistently in a recognizable style, and received broad recognition in the 1960s. Bontecou made abstract sculptures in the 1960s and 1970s and created vacuum-formed plastic fish, plants, and flower forms in the 1970s. Rich, organic shapes and powerful energy appear in her drawings, prints, and sculptures. Her work has been shown and collected in many major museums in the United States and in Europe.
Early life and education
Bontecou attended Bradford Junior College (now Bradford College) in Haverhill, Massachusetts for her general education and then attended the Art Students League of New York from 1952 to 1955, where she studied with the sculptor William Zorach. She also spent the summer of 1954 at the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture in Maine, where she learned to weld. She received a Fulbright scholarship from the U.S.-Italy Fulbright Commission to study in Rome in 1957-1958. In 1971, she began teaching at Brooklyn College.
Bontecou's work is deeply affected by WWII. Both her parents joined the war effort. Her mother wired transmitters for submarine navigation and her father sold gliders for the military. Growing up, she would spend summers with her grandmother in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, where she developed a love of the natural world. She had an older brother, Hank.
Bontecou is best known for the sculptures she created in 1959 and the 1960s, which challenged artistic conventions of both materials and presentation by hanging on the wall. They consist of welded steel frames covered with recycled canvas and industrial materials (such as conveyor belts or mail sacks) and other found objects. Her best constructions are at once mechanistic and organic, abstract but evocative of the brutality of war. Art critic Arthur Danto describes them as "fierce", reminiscent of 17th-century scientist Robert Hooke's Micrographia, lying "at the intersection of magnified insects, battle masks, and armored chariots...”. She exhibited at Leo Castelli's art gallery in the 1960s, alongside Jasper Johns, Frank Stella and Robert Rauschenberg. One of the largest examples of her work is located in the lobby of the David H. Koch Theater at Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York City, which was commissioned by the architect Philip Johnson. From the 1970s until 1991 she taught in the Art Department at Brooklyn College.
She continued to teach through the 1990s, while spending time in Pennsylvania. She moved to Orbisonia, Pennsylvania full-time in 1988 where she continues to work. There she maintained a vigorous studio practice, but showed infrequently. She was brought back to public attention by a 2003 retrospective co-organized by the Hammer Museum in Los Angeles and the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, that traveled to the Museum of Modern Art in New York City in 2004. The retrospective included both work from her public, art-world career and an extensive display of work done after retreating from the public view. Bontecou's work was also included in the Carnegie International 2004-5 exhibit in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 2010, the Museum of Modern Art presented a retrospective of Bontecou's work entitled All Freedom in Every Sense. In 2014, her drawings were exhibited in Lee Bontecou: Drawn Worlds, organized by The Menil Collection, which traveled to the Princeton University Art Museum. Her work was also included in Revolution in the Making: Abstract Sculpture by Women, 1947-2016 at Hauser Wirth & Schimmel in 2016.
In 2017, a major exhibition of Bontecou's drawings and sculpture, including a site-specific installation entitled Sandbox, a collaboration between Bontecou and Joan Banach, was organized by the Gemeentemuseum Den Haag. The exhibition was curated by Joan Banach and Laura Stamps, and accompanied by a fully illustrated catalogue published by Hannibal (Dutch) and Koenig Books, London (English). The catalogue contains new essays on Lee Bontecou by Laura Stamps, Curator of Modern Art at The Gemeentemuseum, Joan Banach, and Jeremy Melius, with an introduction by Gemeentemuseum Director, Benno Tempel.
In the 1960s, Bontecou's work was hailed for its unique position in between painting and sculpture. Sculptor Donald Judd wrote that her work "asserts its own existence, form and power. It becomes an object in its own right." The openness, autonomy and engineering processes central to her work, were embraced by the Feminist Art Movement in the 1970s and her use of cavities and holes has been read as female genitalia, and the related, central core imagery. It is an association the artist has denied. Her work has been characterized by references to the synergy between nature and fiction, resulting naturalistically rendered creatures, with grotesquely morphed features.
Techniques and materials
Lee Bontecou works with many materials, such as metal, paper, plastic and fibreglass. She also works with unconventional materials and discovers new techniques. In her drawings, she developed a process in the late 1950s of using an oxyacetylene torch to produce a carbon spray from the flame, resulting in an "airbrushed" look and deep saturated blacks that she took to her sculptural work.
Bontecou's work can be seen in a number of public institutions, including:
- Cleveland Museum of Art
- David H. Koch Theater (New York City)
- David Winton Bell Gallery at Brown University
- Kunstmuseum Den Haag, (The Hague)
- Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art at Cornell University
- Honolulu Museum of Art
- Menil Collection
- Moderna Museet (Stockholm)
- Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (Rotterdam)
- Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago
- Museum of Fine Arts, Houston
- Museum of Modern Art
- National Gallery of Art
- The Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller Empire State Plaza Art Collection (Albany, NY)
- Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts
- The Richard M. Ross Art Museum (Delaware, OH)
- Smithsonian American Art Museum
- Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam
- University of Michigan Museum of Art
- Walker Art Center
- Whitney Museum of American Art
Bontecou is represented by her sole agent, Bill Maynes.
Bontecou is married to the artist William Giles with whom she has a daughter, Valerie.
A picture of Bontecou working in her studio, taken by Italian photographer Ugo Mulas in 1963, was used as the cover art for Spoon’s 2007 album Ga Ga Ga Ga Ga. The apparently completed sculpture on the right is now in the collection of the Honolulu Museum of Art.
- "Lee Bontecou" Archived December 29, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, The Whitney Museum of American Art, Retrieved 22 December 2014.
- Bontecou, Lee; White, Michelle; Ashton, Dore; Banach, Joan; Menil Collection (Houston, Tex.); Princeton University; Art Museum (January 1, 2014). Lee Bontecou: drawn worlds. ISBN 9780300204131. OCLC 861671716.
- Danto 2004
- "Lee Bontecou", Britannica, Retrieved 22 December 2014.
- Trachtman, Paul. "Lee Bontecou's Brave New World", Smithsonian Magazine, Retrieved 24 December 2014.
- Rooney, Kara L. (July–August 2010). "Lee Bontecou: All Freedom in Every Sense". The Brooklyn Rail.
- "Welcome to LeeBontecou.com :: Home :: Lee Bontecou, American artist whose work ranged from dark, dramatic abstract constructions to softer, transparent natural forms, evoking a correspondingly broad range of response". June 29, 2007. Archived from the original on June 29, 2007.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- Bates, Rebecca. "The Menil Collection Showcases Fifty Years of Lee Bontecou's Surreal Drawings | Architectural Digest". Architectural Digest. Retrieved March 18, 2016.
- Judd, Donald (1965). "Lee Bontecou". Arts Magazine. OCLC 1580772.
- Tapp, Mara. "Lee Bontecou Doesn't Care What You Think". Chicago Reader. Retrieved March 18, 2016.
- Butler, C., et al. Eds. 2010. Modern Women: Women Artists at the Museum of Modern Art. MoMA.
- Rosenberg, Karen (July 24, 2014). "'Lee Bontecou: Drawn Worlds,' an Artist's Other Side". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
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- "Search". Kunstmuseum Den Haag. March 21, 2017.
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- "Empire State Plaza Art Collection". Retrieved November 14, 2018.
- "Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts". PAFA - Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
- "Lee Bontecou | Smithsonian American Art Museum". americanart.si.edu. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
- "Exchange: Untitled, from 'Ten from Leo Castelli'". exchange.umma.umich.edu. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
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- "National Academicians - National Academy Museum". Archived from the original on March 14, 2016.
- Tapp, Mara. "Lee Bontecou Doesn't Care What You Think". Chicago Reader. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
- "Spoon Frontman Britt Daniel on a Career of Album Covers", Juxtapoz Magazine, Retrieved 24 December 2014.
- Applin, Jo (June 2006) "This threatening and possibly functioning object: Lee Bontecou and the Sculptural Void", Art History 29:3, pp. 476–503
- Banach, Joan (February 2017) "A Peripatetic Atlas of the Sandbox", Lee Bontecou, exhibition catalogue, Gemeentemuseum Den Haag. London: Koenig Books.
- Danto, Arthur (2004) "A Tribe Called Quest", The Nation, September 27, 2004, p. 40-43
- Dreishpoon, Douglas (1996) "From a curator's point of view: making selections and forging connections: Lee Bontecou, Eva Hesse, Donald Judd, Sol LeWitt, Brice Marden, Robert Morris, Robert Smithson / Douglas Dreishpoon", Weatherspoon Art Gallery, University of North Carolina at Greensboro,
- Molesworth, Helen Anne (2005) "Part Object Part Sculpture", Wexner Center for the Arts, The Ohio State University
- Smith, Elizabeth A.T.; Ann Philbin (2003). Lee Bontecou: A Retrospective. Dona De Salvo, Mona Hadler, Donald Judd, Robert Storr. Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago with Harry N. Abrams Inc. ISBN 0-8109-4618-1.
- Krygier, Irit Career Interrupted on artnet
- Hadler, Mona (2007) "Lee Bontecou: Plastic Fish and Grinning Saw Blades," Woman’s Art Journal,Vol XXVIII, No. 1 (Spring/Summer, 2007), pp. 12–18
- Hadler, Mona (1994) "Lee Bontecou's 'Warnings'," Art Journal,Vol.LIII,No. 4(Winter,1994), pp. 56–61.
- Rosenberg, Karen. "Sketching When the Pencil Requires Ignition Lee Bontecou:Drawn Worlds an Artist's Other Side." The New York Times 24 July 2014: n. pag. Print.
- Lee Bontecou: a tribute at the Wayback Machine (archived June 29, 2007)
- Entry for Lee Bontecou on the Union List of Artist Names
- Lee Bontecou on Widewalls
- Lee Bontecou on Untitled, 1980-1998
- Women Artists and Postwar Abstraction | HOW TO SEE with MoMA curator Starr Figura