Leishmania braziliensis

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Leishmania braziliensis
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Excavata
Phylum: Euglenozoa
Class: Kinetoplastida
Order: Trypanosomatida
Genus: Leishmania
Binomial name
Leishmania braziliensis

Leishmania braziliensis is a Leishmania species.[1]

It is associated with leishmaniasis.

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Within a few months of infection, an ulcer forms. After healing there is an asymptomatic phase for three to twenty years. At this time, the parasite causes oral and nasal lesions causing severe damage to the mucus membranes.

Treatment[edit]

Pentostam, Liposomal and lipid complex preparations of Amphotericin B, or paromomycin can be given.

Sexual reproduction[edit]

Leishmania braziliensis, like other species of Leishmania rely on asexual reproduction in the intermediate mammalian host to greatly increase population density. Such reproduction is often witnessed in mononuclear phagocytes (dendritic cells, monocytes, neutrophils) of the mammalian host, with the macrophages being the target white blood cell of the parasite.[2] Recently, it has been hypothesized through two studies [3][4] that certain members of Leishmania genus (e.g. L. braziliensis) are capable of sexual reproduction in the gut of the sand-fly vector. More work is needed to establish a clear pattern of sexual reproduction in the genus.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vargas-Inchaustegui DA, Xin L, Soong L (June 2008). "Leishmania braziliensis infection induces dendritic cell activation, ISG15 transcription, and the generation of protective immune responses". J. Immunol. 180 (11): 7537–45. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.180.11.7537. PMC 2641013Freely accessible. PMID 18490754. 
  2. ^ Peters N, Egen J, Secundino N, Debrabant A, Kimblin N, Kamhawi S, Lawyer P, Fay M, Germain R, Sacks D. 2008. In Vivo Imaging Reveals an Essential Role for Neutrophils in Leishmaniasis Transmitted by Sand Flies. Science 321:970-974.
  3. ^ Rougeron V, De Meeus T, Hide M, Waleckx E, Bermudez H, Arevalo J, Llanos-Cuentas A, Dujardin J, De Doncker S, Le Ray D, Ayala F, Banuls A. 2009. Extreme inbreeding in Leishmania braziliensis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106:10224-10229.
  4. ^ Volf PSadlova J. 2009. Sex in Leishmania. Science 324:1644-1644.
  5. ^ Rougeron V, De Meeûs T, Kako Ouraga S, Hide M, Bañuls A. 2010. “Everything You Always Wanted to Know about Sex (but Were Afraid to Ask)” in Leishmania after Two Decades of Laboratory and Field Analyses. PLoS Pathog 6:e1001004.

Further reading[edit]

Alcazar, Wilmer; Silva-Lopez, Adrian; Alakurtti, Sami; Tuononen, Maija-Liisa; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Ponte-Sucre, Alicia (1 November 2014). "Betulin derivatives impair Leishmania braziliensis viability and host-parasite interaction". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 22 (21): 6220–6226. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2014.08.023. PMID 25240731.