Leprosy colony money
Leprosy colony money was special money which circulated only in leprosy sanatoriums (leper colonies) due to the fear that the leprosy bacteria would infect other people. Leprosy, however, is in fact not easily transmitted by casual contact, and such transmission as there is only happens through long term, constant and intimate contact with leprosy sufferers and not contact with everyday objects used by sufferers.
The system of special colony money was used between 1901 and around 1955.
The original reason for leprosy colony money was the prevention of leprosy in healthy persons. In 1938, Dr. Gordon Alexander Ryrie in Malaysia proved that the paper money was not contaminated with leprosy bacteria and all the banknotes were burned in that country.
The first special money
The oldest special money known was made in 1901 for use in three leper colonies of Colombia, called Agua de Dios, Cano de Loro and Contratación. Five kinds of coins were known, with 2.5 centavos, 5 centavos, 10 centavos, 20 centavos, and 50 centavos. "República de Colombia 1901" was engraved. These coins were issued after the first leprosy congress in Berlin in 1897.
Special money made in the US
Between 1919 and 1952, special coins were used in a Panama Canal Zone leprosy colony called Palo Seco Colony. One cent, 5 cents, 10 cents, 25 cents, 50 cents and one dollar coins were made in the United States, with one hole in the coins.
In 1913, special coins made from aluminum were minted in Manila for use in the Philippines' leprosy colonies. In 1947, consequently to Japanese occupation during WW II, paper money was issued inside the Culion colony.
In 1919, special coins were made in Tama Zenshoen Sanatorium, and later in other sanatoriums in Japan. It is a characteristic of the special money of Japan that coins and in some cases money in papers or plastic were issued by the sanatoriums and not by the government. However, patients liked banknotes or coins of the Japan Bank. When patients were hospitalized, their money was changed for special money, so that this system was used also for the strengthening of segregation. In some sanatoriums, special money served as allowances for poor patients. By 1955 this system had been discontinued in Japan, in some cases initiated by crimes.
In 1936, 5 cents, 10 cents and 1 dollar notes were issued in the Sungei Buloh Settlement in Malaysia, printed in four languages. The Director, Dr. Gordon Alexander Ryrie, sent the special banknotes for examination and it was proved that the notes were not disease carriers. All special banknotes were burned in a bonfire in that country in 1938.
Special money in other countries
Leprosy colony money is also known to have existed in Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Korea, Nigeria, Thailand and Venezuela.
References and sources
- Kue Issho(1979) p. 39. Ikko Sha, Tokyo 0021-01080-0338
- Unique experiment with currency notes(1970) Isaac Teoh, The Star, January–February, p7.
- The numismatic aspects of leprosy(1993), McFadden, RR, Grost J, Marr DF. p.21 D.C.McDonald Associates, Inc. U.S.A.
- The numismatic aspects of leprosy(1993), p54.
- The numismatic aspects of leprosy(1993),p.58.
- Kue Issho (1979) Ikko Sha, Tokyo
- Akebonono Shiokaze(1998) Nihon Bunkyo Shuppan, Okayama
- The numismatic aspects of leprosy. Money, Medals and Miscellanea (1993) Roger R. McFadden, John Grost, Dennis F. Marr. D.C. McDonald Associates, Inc. USA.