Limestone Calcined Clay Cement

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Limestone Calcined Clay Cement (LC3) is a low-carbon cement[1][2][3][4] developed by the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, IIT-Bombay, Technology and Action for Rural Development (TARA), IIT-Madras, and the Central University of Las Villas (Cuba).[5][6][7] The cement can reduce carbon dioxide emissions (CO2) related to manufacturing by 30% as compared to ordinary Portland cement.[8][9][10][11] In 2014, the LC3 project received 4m CHF in Research and Development funding from the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC).[12][13][14][15]

History[edit]

Limestone Calcined Clay Cement (LC3) stems from research by the EPFL. It is the result of an ongoing cooperation between EPFL and partners in India and Cuba on developing low carbon and resource efficient raw materials for cement manufacturing.[16][17][18][7] In 2014, the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation provided CHF 4 million in funding for the research and development of LC3.[19][20] Testing and standardisation[7] was carried out by the EPFL, IIT-Delhi, IIT-Bombay, Technology and Action for Rural Development (TARA), IIT-Madras, and the Central University of Las Villas (Cuba).[21] Part of the research focused on specific thematic areas of cement research including hydrate assemblages, pore structure, rheology, reactivity (chemistry), durability and mechanical properties, production, environmental sustainability, and cost effectiveness.[22][23][24]

Composition[edit]

The main components of LC3 are clinker, calcined clay, limestone, and gypsum.[25][26][27] Its manufacturing process involves synergetic hydration.[28][29] Adding large amounts of calcined clay and ground limestone to concrete mixtures,[30][31] the aluminates from the clay interact with the calcium carbonates from the limestone.[32][33] The additional alumina in the metakaolin reacts with the ground limestone, leading to a less porous material than other cements and providing equal strength with higher levels of clinker substitution.[34][35][36]

Environmental impact[edit]

Limestone Calcined Clay Cement is a low-carbon alternative to the standard Portland cement.[37][38] LC3 can reduce CO2 emissions related to cement manufacturing of cement by reducing the amount of clinker, replacing it with limestone and calcined clays.[39][40] Low-grade kaoline clays can be used for the production of LC3 and are abundantly available in many parts of the world.[41][42]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Green Cement To Help Reduce Carbon Emissions". Forbes.
  2. ^ "Indo-Swiss proj in low-carbon cement to get boost". Orange News.
  3. ^ "Green Cement Reduces Carbon Footprint by 40%". Sourceable.
  4. ^ "Green Cement". Precast.
  5. ^ Sabnis, Gajanan M. (2015). Green Building with Concrete: Sustainable Design and Construction, Second Edition. CRC Press. p. 57. ISBN 1498704115.
  6. ^ "EPFL plans new building material for US$1 trillion development plan". AGG Business.
  7. ^ a b c "Making cement less energy intensive". The Hindu.
  8. ^ "Researchers Test Low-Carbon Cement". Environmental Leader.
  9. ^ "Green Cement Reduces Carbon Footprint by 40%". Sourceable.
  10. ^ "Cement which reduces CO2 emission developed". Z News.
  11. ^ "IITs Team up to Develop Eco-friendly Cement". The New Indian Express.
  12. ^ "A new, greener cement to meet future demand". News Mediacom.
  13. ^ "Indo-Swiss project in low-carbon cement to get boost in India". Economic Times.
  14. ^ "Green cement that reduce carbon footprint by 40%". Green Tech Lead.
  15. ^ "L'EPFL développe un ciment écologique". Tribune de Geneve.
  16. ^ "Indo-Swiss project in low-carbon cement to get boost in India". ET Realty.
  17. ^ "Limestone Calcined Clay Cement (LC3) to cut CO2 emissions by up to 30%". New Materials International.
  18. ^ "New Cement Blend to cut CO2 Emissions by up to 30%". Construction news.
  19. ^ "EPFL's cement discovery". Le News.
  20. ^ "Three IITs develop cement low on carbon content". Times of India.
  21. ^ "India, Switzerland join hands to reduce energy consumption". Times of India.
  22. ^ "International Conference on Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete". Global Events.
  23. ^ "Green Cement Reduces Carbon Footprint by 40%". Sourceable.
  24. ^ "India and Switzerland as Innovation Partners". SwissNex.
  25. ^ "LC3". eConstruction.
  26. ^ "Ecologie: un ciment moins polluant développé en Suisse". Bluewin.
  27. ^ "Limestone Calcined Clay Cement (LC3) to cut CO2 emissions by up to 30%". New Materials.
  28. ^ "Cement which reduces CO2 emission developed". Z News.
  29. ^ "Un nouveau ciment écologique pour répondre aux besoins futurs". Enerzine.
  30. ^ "Green Cement To Help Reduce Carbon Emissions". Forbes.
  31. ^ "Clay and Limestone Cement Could Cut Carbon Emissions". Landscape Online. Archived from the original on 2016-06-24.
  32. ^ "April 2016 Edition" (PDF). World Cement.
  33. ^ "Kuba produziert Öko-Zement für den Weltmarkt". Amerika21.
  34. ^ "Effect of fineness in clinker-calcined clays-limestone cements". Research Gate.
  35. ^ "Indo-Swiss project in low-carbon cement to get boost in India". Economic Times.
  36. ^ "Indo-Swiss proj in low-carbon cement to get boost". Orange News.
  37. ^ "Öko-Zement erzeugt 40 Prozent weniger Klimagase". Schweizerbauer.
  38. ^ "L'EPFL développe un ciment écologique". Tribune de Geneve.
  39. ^ "Advancements In Stronger, Greener Concrete". The Concrete Producer.
  40. ^ "¿Qué es el cemento ecológico?". El Destape.
  41. ^ "IITs working on new cement blend to cut down carbon footprint". Times of India.
  42. ^ "Switzerland to help India cut down greenhouse emissions". Economic Times.

External links[edit]