List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients of the Schnellboot service

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The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) and its variants were the highest award in the military of the Third Reich. Recipients are grouped by grades of the Knight's Cross. During World War II, 23 German sailors and officers of the Schnellboot (Fast Attack Craft) service, which was a part of the Kriegsmarine, received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. Of these, 8 officers received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub).[1]

Background[edit]

The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross and its higher grades were based on four separate enactments. The first enactment, Reichsgesetzblatt I S. 1573 of 1 September 1939 instituted the Iron Cross (Eisernes Kreuz), the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross and the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross (Großkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes). Article 2 of the enactment mandated that the award of a higher class be preceded by the award of all preceding classes.[2] As the war progressed, some of the recipients of the Knight's Cross distinguished themselves further and a higher grade, the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub), was instituted. The Oak Leaves, as they were commonly referred to, were based on the enactment Reichsgesetzblatt I S. 849 of 3 June 1940.[3] In 1941, two higher grades of the Knight's Cross were instituted. The enactment Reichsgesetzblatt I S. 613 of 28 September 1941 introduced the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern) and the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillanten).[4] At the end of 1944 the final grade, the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Golden Oak Leaves, Swords, and Diamonds (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit goldenem Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillanten), based on the enactment Reichsgesetzblatt 1945 I S. 11 of 29 December 1944, became the final variant of the Knight's Cross authorized.[5]

Recipients[edit]

The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht kept separate Knight's Cross lists, one for each of the three military branches, Heer (Army), Kriegsmarine (Navy), Luftwaffe (Air force) and for the Waffen-SS. Within each of these lists a unique sequential number was assigned to each recipient. The same numbering paradigm was applied to the higher grades of the Knight's Cross, one list per grade.[6]

  This along with the + (plus) indicates that a higher grade of Knight's Cross was awarded as well.

Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves[edit]

The Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves was based on the enactment Reichsgesetzblatt I S. 849 of 3 June 1940. The last officially announced number for the Oak Leaves was 843.[7]

Number Name Rank Unit Date of award Notes
143 Toniges, WernerWerner Töniges 14-MKapitänleutnant[8] Commander of Schnellboot S-102 in the 1. Schnellbootflottille[8][9] 13 November 1942[8]
226 Wuppermann, SiegfriedSiegfried Wuppermann 13-MOberleutnant zur See[10] Commander of Schnellboot S-56 in the 3. Schnellbootflottille[11][Note 1] 14 April 1943[10]
249 Kemnade, FriedrichFriedrich Kemnade 15-MKorvettenkapitän[12] Chief of the 3. Schnellbootflottille[12][13] 27 May 1943[12]
326 Christiansen, GeorgGeorg Christiansen 15-MKorvettenkapitän[14] Chief of the 1. Schnellbootsflottille[14][15] 13 November 1943[14]
361 Klug, BerndBernd Klug 15-MKorvettenkapitän[16] Chief of the 5. Schnellbootflottille[16][17] 1 January 1944[16]
362 Feldt, KlausKlaus Feldt 15-MKorvettenkapitän[18] Chief of the 2. Schnellbootflottille[17][18] 1 January 1944[18]
499 Petersen, RudolfRudolf Petersen 17-MKapitän zur See[19] Leader of the Schnellboote[19][20] 13 June 1944[19]
500 Mirbach, Götz Freiherr vonGötz Freiherr von Mirbach 14-MKapitänleutnant[21] Chief of the 9. Schnellbootflottille[20][21] 14 June 1944[21]

Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross[edit]

The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross is based on the enactment Reichsgesetzblatt I S. 1573 of 1 September 1939 Verordnung über die Erneuerung des Eisernen Kreuzes (Regulation of the renewing of the Iron Cross).

Number Name Rank Unit Date of award Notes
1 Opdenhoff, HermannHermann Opdenhoff 13-MOberleutnant zur See[22] Commander Schnellboot S-31 in the 2. Schnellbootflottille[23][Note 2] 16 May 1940[22] Killed in action 22 March 1945[24]
2 Birnbacher, HeinzHeinz Birnbacher 14-MKapitänleutnant[25] Chief of the 1. Schnellbootflottille[25][26] 17 June 1940[25]
3 Petersen, RudolfRudolf Petersen+ 15-MKorvettenkapitän[19] Chief of the 2. Schnellbootsflottille[19][27] 4 August 1940[19] Awarded 499th Oak Leaves 13 June 1944[19]
4 Fimmen, KurtKurt Fimmen 13-MOberleutnant zur See[28] Commander of Schnellboot S-26 in the 1. Schnellbootflottille[28][29] 14 August 1940[28]
5 Mirbach, Götz Freiherr vonGötz Freiherr von Mirbach+ 13-MOberleutnant zur See[21] Commander of Schnellboot S-21 in the 1. Schnellbootflottille[30][Note 3] 14 August 1940[21] Awarded 500th Oak Leaves 14 June 1944[21]
6 Toniges, WernerWerner Töniges+ 13-MOberleutnant zur See[8] Commander of Schnellboot S-102 in the 1. Schnellbootflottille[31][Note 4] 25 February 1941[8] Awarded 143rd Oak Leaves 13 November 1942[8]
7 Klug, Bernd-GeorgBernd-Georg Klug+ 14-MKapitänleutnant[16] Commander of Schnellboot S-28 in the 1. Schnellbootflottille[16][32] 12 March 1941[16] Awarded 361st Oak Leaves 1 January 1944[16]
8 Feldt, KlausKlaus Feldt+ 13-MOberleutnant zur See[18] Commander of Schnellboot S-30 in the 2. Schnellbootflottille[18][33] 25 April 1941[18] Awarded 362nd Oak Leaves 1 January 1944[18]
9 Christiansen, GeorgGeorg Christiansen+ 13-MOberleutnant zur See[14] Commander of Schnellboot S-101 in the 1. Schnellbootflottille[14][34] 8 May 1941[14] Awarded 326th Oak Leaves 13 November 1943[14]
10 Wuppermann, SiegfriedSiegfried Wuppermann+ 13-MOberleutnant zur See[10] Commander of Schnellboot S-60 in the 3. Schnellbootflottille[35][Note 5] 3 August 1941[10] Awarded 226th Oak Leaves 14 April 1943[10]
11 Baetge, NielsNiels Bätge 14-MKapitänleutnant[36] Chief of the 4. Schnellbootflottille[36][37] 4 January 1942[36] Killed in action 12 December 1944[38]
12 Kemnade, FriedrichFriedrich Kemnade+ 14-MKapitänleutnant[12] Chief of the 3. Schnellbootflottille[12][39] 23 July 1942[12] Awarded 249th Oak Leaves 27 May 1943[12]
13 Buchting, HermannHermann Büchting 14-MKapitänleutnant[40] Commander of Schnellboot S-27 in the 1. Schnellbootflottille[41][Note 6] 22 April 1943[40]
14 Weber, [Dr.] Horst[Dr.] Horst Weber[Note 7] 13-MOberleutnant zur See of the Reserves[42][Note 8] Commander of Schnellboot S-55 in the 3. Schnellbootflottille[42][Note 8] 5 July 1943[43]
15 Muller, KarlKarl Müller 14-MKapitänleutnant[44] Commander of Schnellboot S-52 in the 5. Schnellbootflottille[45][Note 9] 8 July 1943[44]
16 Karcher, Karl-EhrhartKarl-Ehrhart Karcher 13-MOberleutnant zur See[46] Commander of Schnellboot S-87 in the 4. Schnellbootflottille[46][47] 12 August 1943[46]
17 Künzel, Karl-FriedrichKarl-Friedrich Künzel 13-MOberleutnant zur See[48] Group leader and commander of Schnellboot S-28 in the 1. Schnellbootflottille[48][49] 12 December 1943[48]
18 Muller, AlbertAlbert Müller 14-MKapitänleutnant[50] Commander of Schnellboot S-59 in the 3. Schnellbootflottille[51][Note 10] 13 December 1943[50]
19 Schmidt, Klaus-DegenhardKlaus-Degenhard Schmidt 13-MOberleutnant zur See[52] Commander of Schnellboot S-54 in the 10. Schnellbootflottille[53][Note 11] 22 December 1943[52] Killed in action 22 December 1944[54]
20 Johannsen, KurtKurt Johannsen 14-MKapitänleutnant[55] Chief of the 5. Schnellbootflottille[55][56] 14 June 1944[55] Killed in action 14 June 1944[24]
21 Haag, HeinzHeinz Haag 13-MOberleutnant zur See[57] Commander of Schnellboot S-60 in the 3. Schnellbootflottille[57][58] 25 November 1944[57]
22 Zymalkowski, FelixFelix Zymalkowski 15-MKorvettenkapitän[59] Chief of the 8. Schnellbootflottille[59][60] 10 April 1945[59]
23 Matzen, Ingwer(Jens)Ingwer(Jens) Matzen 15-MKorvettenkapitän[61] Chief of the 6. Schnellbootflottille[61][62] 2 May 1945[61]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ According to Scherzer as commander of Schnellboot S-56.[10]
  2. ^ According to Scherzer as commander of S-31.[22]
  3. ^ According to Scherzer as commander of Schnellboot S-21.[21]
  4. ^ According to Scherzer as commander of Schnellboot S-102.[8]
  5. ^ According to Scherzer as commander of Schnellboot S-60.[10]
  6. ^ According to Scherzer as commander of Schnellboot S-27 respectively S-51 in the 1. Schnellbootflottille.[40]
  7. ^ The brackets around the doctor title [Dr.] denotes that the academic title was attained after the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was awarded.
  8. ^ a b According to Scherzer as Oberleutnant zur See and commander of Schnellboot S-55.[43]
  9. ^ According to Scherzer commander of Schnellboot S-52.[44]
  10. ^ According to Scherzer commander of Schnellboot S-52.[50]
  11. ^ According to Scherzer as commander of Schnellboot S-54.[52]

References[edit]

Specific
  1. ^ Kurowski 2007, p. 154–155
  2. ^ "Reichsgesetzblatt Teil I S. 1573; 1 September 1939" (PDF). ALEX Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (in German). Reichsministerium des Inneren (Ministry of the Interior). Retrieved 21 February 2008. 
  3. ^ "Reichsgesetzblatt Teil I S. 849; 3 June 1940" (PDF). ALEX Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (in German). Reichsministerium des Inneren (Ministry of the Interior). Retrieved 21 February 2008. 
  4. ^ "Reichsgesetzblatt Teil I S. 613; 28 September 1941" (PDF). ALEX Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (in German). Reichsministerium des Inneren (Ministry of the Interior). Retrieved 21 February 2008. 
  5. ^ "Reichsgesetzblatt 1945 I S. 11; 29 December 1944" (PDF). ALEX Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (in German). Reichsministerium des Inneren (Ministry of the Interior). Retrieved 21 February 2008. 
  6. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p.112.
  7. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 102.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Scherzer 2007, p. 747.
  9. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 62.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Scherzer 2007, p. 800.
  11. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 68.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Scherzer 2007, p. 436.
  13. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 69.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Scherzer 2007, p. 259.
  15. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 74.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Scherzer 2007, p. 451.
  17. ^ a b Fellgiebel 2000, p. 76.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Scherzer 2007, p. 304.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Scherzer 2007, p. 590.
  20. ^ a b Fellgiebel 2000, p. 84.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g Scherzer 2007, p. 546.
  22. ^ a b c Scherzer 2007, p. 577.
  23. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 330.
  24. ^ a b Kurowski 2007, p. 155.
  25. ^ a b c Scherzer 2007, p. 222.
  26. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 133.
  27. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, pp. 336, 499.
  28. ^ a b c Scherzer 2007, p. 307.
  29. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 180.
  30. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 312.
  31. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 424.
  32. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 261.
  33. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, pp. 178, 490.
  34. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 153.
  35. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 454.
  36. ^ a b c Scherzer 2007, p. 199.
  37. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 120.
  38. ^ Range 1974, p. 53.
  39. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 253.
  40. ^ a b c Scherzer 2007, p. 250.
  41. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 148.
  42. ^ a b Fellgiebel 2000, p. 437.
  43. ^ a b Scherzer 2007, p. 770.
  44. ^ a b c Scherzer 2007, p. 557.
  45. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 318.
  46. ^ a b c Scherzer 2007, p. 432.
  47. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 251.
  48. ^ a b c Scherzer 2007, p. 481.
  49. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 278.
  50. ^ a b c Scherzer 2007, p. 554.
  51. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 316.
  52. ^ a b c Scherzer 2007, p. 671.
  53. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 382.
  54. ^ Range 1974, p. 152.
  55. ^ a b c Scherzer 2007, p. 422.
  56. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 245.
  57. ^ a b c Scherzer 2007, p. 357.
  58. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 208.
  59. ^ a b c Scherzer 2007, p. 810.
  60. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 460.
  61. ^ a b c Scherzer 2007, p. 530.
  62. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 304.
General
  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000) [1986]. Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 — Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. 
  • Kurowski, Franz (2007). Korvettenkapitän Werner Töniges Der erste Eichenlaubträger der Schnellbootwaffe. Flechsig Verlag. ISBN 978-3-88189-737-2.
  • Range, Clemens (1974). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Kriegsmarine [The Knight's Cross Bearers of the Navy]. Stuttgart, Germany: Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 978-3-87943-355-1. 
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. 

External links[edit]