List of echinoderms of Venezuela

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List of echinoderms of Venezuela

The echinoderms of Venezuela are a strictly marine animal phylum comprising about 124 species of marine waters designated for Venezuelan Caribbean.[1] The first lists of species for Venezuelan coast date back to 1939[2] and 1967.[3]

In Venezuela are five classes representatives living today: Crinoidea, Asteroidea, Ophiuroidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea.[4] In this list are listed 105 species for the territory Venezuelan.[2][3][5][6][7]

List of species identified for Venezuela[edit]

Crinoidea (Sea Lilies)[edit]

Crinoidea
Species Common name Global distribution Distribution by state[nota 1] Image
Antedon bifida (Pennant, 1777)[3][7] Rosy Feather-star[8] Atlantic Ocean[9] Ar; Su; Va

Antedon bifida 01.jpg

Davidaster rubiginosus (Pourtàles, 1869)[3] Sea lily[3][10] Caribbean Sea[11] Ar

Davidaster rubiginosa (Golden Crinoid Feather Star).jpg

Tropiometra carinata (Lamarck, 1816)[3][7] Black and White Sea Lily[12] Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean[13] Ar; Ca; Fa; DF; Su; Va

P4259296 Myzostomids at Percys Hole.JPG

Asteroidea (Starfishs)[edit]

Asteroidea
Species Common name Global distribution Distribution by state Image
Anthenoides piercei Perrier, 1881[5] Starfish[14] Northwestern Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea[15] NE; Su Fish4521 - Flickr - NOAA Photo Library.jpg
Asterinides folium (Lütken, 1859)[2][3][7] Common Blunt Armed Sea Star[16] Northwestern Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea[17] Su
Astropecten antillensis Lütken, 1859[2][3][7] Starfish[14] Northwestern Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea[18] Su; Zu
Astropecten brasiliensis Müller & Troschel (1842)[3][7] Starfish[14] Western Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea[19] An; Fa; Mi; NE; Su
Astropecten duplicatus Gray, 1840[3][7][20] Two-spined Star Fish[21] Northwestern Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea[22] NE; Su; Va; Zu Fish4527 - Flickr - NOAA Photo Library.jpg
Astropecten marginatus Gray, 1840[2][3][7][20] Starfish[14] Northwestern Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea[23] DA; Fa; NE; Su; Zu
Echinaster brasiliensis Müller & Troschel, 1842[7] Starfish[14] Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea[24] Su
Echinaster echinophorus (Lamarck, 1816)[3][7] Starfish[14] Northwestern Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea[25] DF; NE; Su
Goniaster tesellatus (Lamarck, 1816)[3][5][7] Starfish[14] Atlantic Ocean[26] NE; Su Goniaster tessellatus.jpg
Linckia guildingi Gray, 1840[2][3][7] Yellow Starfish[14] Cosmopolitan[27] NE Guildings's sea star.jpg
Luidia alternata (Say, 1825)[3] Starfish[14] Caribbean Sea[28] NE; Su; Zu
Luidia clathrata (Say, 1825)[3][7] Starfish[14] Atlantic Ocean, Southern Ocean[29] An; NE; Su; Zu Luidia clathrata.jpg
Luidia senegalensis (Lamarck, 1816)[2][3][7][20] Nine-armed Sea Star[30] Northwesthern Atlantic Ocean[31] Mi; NE; Su Nine-armed Sea Star (Luidia senegalensis) (4338628827).jpg
Oreaster reticulatus (Linnaeus, 1858)[2][3][7] Orange Starfish[14] Cushion Sea Star[32] Caribbean Sea[33] Fa; Mi; Mo; NE; Su Starfish.JPG
Tethyaster vestitus (Say, 1825)[3][7] Starfish[14] Caribbean Sea[34] DA; DF; Su

Ophiuroidea (Sea spiders and sea snakes)[edit]

Ophiuroidea
Species Common name Global distribution Distribution by state Image
Amphiodia trychna H. L. Clark, 1918[3][7] Sea spiders[4][10] Caribbean Sea[35] An; Su
Amphioplus coniortodes H. L. Clark, 1918[3][7] Sea spiders[4][10] Caribbean Sea[36] An; NE; Su
Amphipholis januarii Ljungman, 1867[7] Sea spiders[4][10] Caribbean Sea[37] Su
Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje, 1828)[3][7] Small Brittle Star[38] Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean[39] NE; Su Amphipholis squamata - 02.jpg
Amphiura palmeri T Lyman, 1882[3] Sea spiders[4][10] Caribbean Sea[40] Su
Amphiura rathbuni Koehler, 1914[3] Sea spiders[4][10] Caribbean Sea[41] NE
Amphiura stimpsonii Lútken, 1859[7] Sea spiders[4][10] Caribbean Sea[42] Su
Asteronyx loveni Müller & Troschel, 1824[3] Pipe-cleaner Brittlestar[43] Northern Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea[44] Fa Tu - Asteronyx loveni 1.jpg
Astrophyton muricatum (Lamarck, 1816)[3][7][20] Grifo[14] Giant Basket Star[45] Caribbean Sea[46] Ar; DF; NE; Su Astrophyton muriatum - Basket star.jpg
Microphiopholis atra (Stimpson, 1852)[3][7] Sea spiders[4][10] Northwestern Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea[47] An; DA; Mo; Su
Microphiopholis gracillima (Stimpson, 1852)[7] Sea spiders[4][10] Caribbean Sea[48] Su
Ophiactis muelleri Lütken, 1856[3] Sea spiders[4][10] Caribbean Sea[49] Su
Ophiactis algicola H.L. Clark, 1933[7] Sea spiders[4][10] Caribbean Sea[50] Su
Ophiactis savignyi (Müller & Troschel, 1842)[3][7] Savigny's Brittle Star[51] Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Indian Ocean[52] DF; Mi; NE; Su Tiny in-a-sponge brittle stars (Ophiactis savignyi).jpg
Ophiocnida scabriuscula (Lútken, 1859)[7] Lobate Brittle Star[53] Caribbean Sea[54] Su
Ophiocoma echinata (Lamarck, 1816)[3][7] Black Brittle Star[55] Caribbean Sea[56] Ar; DF; Fa; NE; Su Ophiocoma echinata on Agelas clathordes.jpg
Ophiocoma pumila Lütken, 1859[3][7] Banded Ophiocoma[57] Caribbean Sea[58] DF; Fa; Su; Va
Ophiocoma wendtii Müller & Troschel, 1842[3][7] Red Ophiocoma[59] Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Indian Ocean[60] NE; Su
Ophiocomella ophiactoides (H. L. Clark, 1963)[3][7] Coralline Brittle Star[61] Caribbean Sea[62] Ar; Su
Ophioderma appressa (Say, 1825)[3][7] Harlequin Brittle Star[63] Caribbean Sea[64] DF; Mi; NE; Su
Ophioderma brevicauda Lütken, 1856[2][3][7] Short Spined Ophioderma[65] Caribbean Sea[66] Ca; DF; Fa; Mi
Ophioderma brevispina (Say, 1825)[3][7] Sea spiders[4][10] Caribbean Sea[67] DF; Mi Ophioderma brevispina.jpg
Ophioderma cinerea Müller & Troschel, 1842[7] Chocolate Brittle Star[68] Caribbean Sea[69] Su
Ophioderma rubicunda Lütken, 1856[3][7] Ruby Brittle Star[70] Caribbean Sea[71] Su Sanc0448 - Flickr - NOAA Photo Library.jpg
Ophiolepis elegans Lütken, 1859[3][7] Sea spiders[4][10] Caribbean Sea[72] An; DF; Mi; NE; Su Ophiolepis elegans 600.jpg
Ophiolepis impressa Lütken, 1859[3][7] Sea spiders[4][10] Caribbean Sea[73] Mi; Su
Ophiolepis paucispina (Say, 1825)[7][7] Scaly Brittle Star[74] Caribbean Sea[75] Su
Ophiomyxa flaccida ( Say, 1825)[3][7] Slimy Brittle Star[76] Caribbean Sea[77] DF; Su
Ophionereis olivacea H. L. Clark, 1901[3][7] Sea spiders[4][10] Caribbean Sea[78] Su
Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1925)[3][7] Reticulated Brittle Star[79] Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea[80] DF; NE; Su Reef2589.jpg
Ophionereis squamulosa Köehler, 1913[7] Sea spiders[4][10] Caribbean Sea[81] Su
Ophiopsila hartmeyeri Koehler, 1913[3][7] Sea spiders[4][10] Caribbean Sea[82] Su
Ophiopsila riisei Lütken, 1859[3][7] Sea spiders[4][10] Caribbean Sea[83] Ar; DF; Su
Ophiophragmus wurdemani (Lyman, 1860)[3] Sea spiders[4][10] Caribbean Sea[84] Va
Ophiothrix angulata (Say, 1825)[3][7] Angular Brittle Star[85] Northwestern Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea[86] DF; Mi; NE; Su Ophiothrix angulata.jpg
Ophiothrix brachyactis H. L. Clark, 1915[3] Sea spiders[4][10] Caribbean Sea[87] Su
Ophiothrix oerstedii Lütken, 1856[2][3][7] Oersted's Brittle Star[88] Caribbean Sea[89] DF; NE; Su
Ophiothrix suensonii Lütken, 1856[3][7] Suenson's Brittle Star[90] Caribbean Sea[91] NE; Su Sponge Brittle Stars.jpg
Ophiura acervata Lyman 1869[3][7] Sea spiders[4][10] Caribbean Sea[92] DA; Mo; Su

Echinoidea (Sea urchins and sand dollar)[edit]

Echinoidea
Species Common name Global distribution Distribution by state Image
Arbacia punctulata (Lamarck, 1816)[3][7] Purple Sea Urchin.[93][94] Caribbean Sea[95] An; NE; Su Arbacia punctulata Flower Garden Banks.jpg
Brissopsis elongata Mortensen, 1907[3][7] Caribbean Sea[96] An; Su
Brissus unicolor (Leske, 1778)[3] Groove Burrowing Urchin[97] Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Westhern Mediterranean Sea[98] An; DF; Su
Clypeaster cyclopylus H.L.Clark, 1941[99] Venezuelan Caribbean Sea[100] DF (Archp. Los Testigos)
Clypeaster euclastus H.L.Clark, 1941[7][99] Caribbean Sea[101] An, Ca, DA, DF, Fa
Clypeaster lamprus H.L.Clark, 1914[99] Caribbean Sea[102] Va
Clypeaster prostratus Ravenel, 1848[99] Caribbean Sea[103] Fa, Zu
Clypeaster rosaceus (Linnaeus, 1758)[3][99] Sea Biscuit[104] Caribbean Sea[105] Fa; DF; NE Clypeaster rosaceus (San Salvador Island, Bahamas) 3.jpg
Clypeaster subdepressus (Gray, 1825)[3][7][99] Sand Dollar[106] Caribbean Sea[107] An; Fa; NE; Su Clypeaster subdepressus.jpg
Diadema antillarum (Philippi & Agassiz, 1863)[3][7] Long-spined Sea Urchin[108] Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea[109] Ar; Ca; DF; Mi; Su; Va Diadema antillarum Flower Garden Banks.jpg
Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758)[3][7][110] Rock-boring Urchin[111] Caribbean Sea[112] An; Ar; Ca; DA; DF; Fa; Mi; Mo; NE; Su; Va; Zu Echinometra lucunter couple.jpg
Echinometra viridis Agassiz, 1863[2][3][7] Green Urchin[14] Caribbean Sea[113] Ar; Ca; DF; Fa; Mi Echinometra viridis (Reef Urchin).jpg
Encope emarginata (Leske, 1778)[3][7][99] Sand Dollar, Cookie[14] Caribbean Sea[114] Ar; NE; Su Encope emarginata.jpg
Encope michelini Agassiz, 1841[99] Notched Sand Dollar[115] Caribbean Sea[116] Ar; NE; Su
Eucidaris tribuloides (Lamarck, 1816)[2][3][7] Slate Pencil Urchin[117] Caribbean Sea[118] DF; Mi; NE; Su; Va; Zu Eucidaris tribuloides (Slate-pencil Urchin).jpg
Leodia sexiesperforata (Leske, 1778)[3][7][99] Six Holed Keyhole Urchin[119] Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea[120] An; Ar; Ca; Mi; NE; Su; Va Mellita sexiesperforata (six-keyhole sand dollar) (San Salvador Island, Bahamas).jpg
Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816)[2][3][7][121] Variegated Sea Urchin[122] Caribbean Sea[123] An; Ar; Ca; DA; DF; Fa; Mi; Mo; NE; su; Va; Zu Lytechinus variegatus.jpg
Mellita quinquiesperforata latiambulacra H. L. Clark, 1940[2][3][7][99] Dollar see; Cookie[124] Caribbean Sea[125] An; Ar; Ca; DA; Fa; Mi; Mo; NE; Su; Va; Zu Keyhole sand dollar 01.jpg
Meoma ventricosa (Lamarck, 1816)[3][7] Caribbean Sea[126] DF; NE
Moira atropos (Lamarck, 1816)[3][7] Caribbean Sea[127] Su;
Plagiobrissus grandis (Gmelin, 1788)[7] Caribbean Sea[128] An; DA; Su Plagiobrissus grandis.jpg
Schizaster orbignyanus Agassiz, 1980[3][7] Caribbean Sea[129] An; DA; Su
Tripneustes ventricosus (Lamarck, 1816)[3][7] Sea Egg[130] Caribbean Sea[131] DF; Fa; Mi; NE; Su; Va Tripneustes ventricosus (West Indian Sea Egg) edit.jpg

Holothuroidea (Sea Cucumbers)[edit]

Holothuroidea
Species Common name Global distribution Distribution by state Image
Aslia pygmaea (Théel 1886)[2][6][7] Venezuelan Caribbean sea[132] NE
Aslia surinamensis (Semper 1868)[7][133] Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean[133] NE
Astichopus multifidus (Sluter, 1910)[134] Fissured Sea Cucumber[135] Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean[136] DF
Chiridota rotifera (Pourtalès, 1851)[7] Worm Cucumber[137] Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean[138] Su
Euthyonacta solida (Deichmann, 1930)[7] Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean[139] Su
Holothuria arenicola Semper, 1868[7][7] Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean[140] Su Holothuria arenicola.jpg
Holothuria cubana Ludwig, 1875[7][7] Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean[141] Su
Holothuria glaberrima Selenka, 1867[7] Brown Rock Sea Cucumber[142] Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean[143] Su Holothuria glaberrima Selenka, 1867.jpg
Holothuria grisea (Selenka; 1867)[6][7] Gray Sea Cucumber[144] Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean[145] Su
Holothuria impatiens (Forskaal, 1775)[6][7] Impatient Sea Cucumber[146] Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Indian Ocean[147] Su Holothuria impatiens.jpg
Holothuria mexicana Ludwig, 1875[7] Dunkey Dung Sea Cucumber[148] Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean[149] DF; Fa Reef1075 - Flickr - NOAA Photo Library.jpg
Holothuria occidentalis Ludwig, 1875[7] Caribbean Sea[150] Su
Holothuria parvula (Selenka, 1867)[7] Golden Sea Cucumber[151] Caribbean Sea, Indian Ocean[152] Su
Holothuria princeps (Selenka, 1867)[6][7] Caribbean Sea[153] Su
Holothuria surinamensis Ludwig, 1875[2][7] Surinam Sea Cucumber[154] Caribbean Sea[155] Zu Holothuria surinamensis Ludwig, 1875.jpg
Holothuria thomasi Pawson & Caycedo, 1980[7] Tiger Tail Sea Cocumber[156] Caribbean Sea[157] su Holothuria thomasi.jpg
Isostichopus badionotus (Selenka, 1867)[6][7] Three-rowed Sea Cucumber[158] Caribbean Sea[159] DF; Su Isostichopus badionotus 2.jpg
Lissothuria antillensis Pawson, 1967[7] Venezuelan Caribbean Sea[160] Su
Lissothuria braziliensis (Théel, 1886)[7] Venezuelan Caribbean Sea[161] Su
Ocnus suspectus (Ludwig, 1874)[7] Caribbean Sea[162] Su
Pentamera pulcherrima Ayres, 1852[7] Nortrwestern Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea[163] Su
Pseudothyone belli (Luswig, 1887)[7] Caribbean Sea[164] Su Pseudothyone belli (Ludwig, 1887).jpg
Sclerodactyla briareus (Lesueur, 1824)[7] Caribbean Sea[165] Su Hairy sea cucumber.jpg
Thyone pseudofusus Deichmann, 1930[7] Caribbean Sea[166] Su Thyone pseudofusus Deichmann, 1930.jpg
Thyonidium seguroensis (Deichmann, 1930)[7] Caribbean Sea[167] Su

See also[edit]

Notas[edit]

  1. ^ The following codes are used:
    • An: Anzoátegui
    • Ar: Aragua
    • Ca: Carabobo
    • DA: Delta Amacuro
    • DF: Dependencias Federales
    • Fa: Falcón
    • Mi: Miranda
    • Mo: Monagas
    • NE: Nueva Esparta
    • Su: Sucre
    • Va: Vargas
    • Zu: Zulia

References[edit]

  1. ^ Miloslavich P, Díaz JM, Klein E, et al. (2010). "Marine Biodiversity in the Caribbean: Regional Estimates and Distribution Patterns.". PLoS ONE. 5: e11916. PMC 2914069Freely accessible. PMID 20689856. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011916. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Engel H (1939). "Echinoderms from Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire and Northern Venezuela". Capita Zoologica. VIII (4): 1–12. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo Zoppy E (1967). "Contribución al conocimiento de los Equinodermos de Venezuela". Acta Biologica Venezuelica. 5 (17): 267–333. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Zoppy, E. & Cedeño, A. 1980. Phylum Echinodermata. En: Bodini, R. & Rada, D. Biología Animal. Editorial Ateneo de Caracas. Caracas - Venezuela. pp:233-242
  5. ^ a b c Flores C., Martínez de R. A. (1970). "Status de la familia Goniasteridae (Asteroidea: Phanerozonia) en la región Oriental de Venezuela". Boletín del Instituto Oceanográfico de la Universidad de Oriente. 9 (1–2): 3–8. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Martínez , Mago H (1975). "Contribución al conocimiento de los holoturoideos (Holoturoidea: Echinodermata) de la región oriental de Venezuela". Boletín del Instituto Oceanográfico de la Universidad de Oriente. 14 (2): 187–197. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co "Gómez M, María C. y Hernández A, Iván. 2011: Equinodermos de la bahía Tunantal, Estado Sucre, Venezuela. Boletín del Instituto Oceanográfico de Venezuela, 50 (2): 209-231". Ojs.udo.edu.ve. 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  8. ^ "Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) ''Antedon bifida''". EOL. 2010-03-30. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  9. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Antedon bifida'' (Pennant, 1777) AphiaID: 124201". Marinespecies.org. 2004-12-21. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Matínez E. Rafael y Martínez M. Enrique. 1998: Técnicas generales para invertebrados, colecta, anestesia, fijación, preservación, coloración, montaje, cultivo y calidad de agua. Caracas. 246p.
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  12. ^ "encyclopedia od Life (EOL) ''Tropiometra carinata''". EOL. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  13. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Tropiometra carinata'' (Lamarck, 1816) AphiaID: 213331". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
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  23. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Astropecten marginatus'' Gray, 1840 AphiaID: 178667". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  24. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Echinaster (Othilia) brasiliensis'' Müller & Troschel, 1842 AphiaID: 178747". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  25. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Echinaster (Othilia) echinophorus'' (Lamarck, 1816) AphiaID: 178748". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  26. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Goniaster tessellatus'' (de Lamarck, 1816) AphiaID: 124033". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  27. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Linckia guildingi'' Gray, 1840 AphiaID: 178188". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  28. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Luidia alternata'' (Say, 1825)AphiaID: 178615". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  29. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Luidia clathrata'' (Say, 1825) AphiaID: 158497". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  30. ^ "Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) ''Luidia senegalensis'' Nine-armed Sea Star". EOL. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  31. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Luidia senegalensis'' (Lamark, 1816) AphiaID: 178641". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  32. ^ "Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) ''Oreaster reticulatus'' Cushion Sea Star". EOL. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  33. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Oreaster reticulatus'' (Linnaeus, 1758) AphiaID: 178210". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  34. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Tethyaster vestitus'' (Say, 1825) AphiaID: 178718". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  35. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Amphiodia trychna'' H.L. Clark, 1918 AphiaID: 242681". Marinespecies.org. 2007-07-18. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  36. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Amphioplus coniortodes'' H.L. Clark, 1918 AphiaID: 242765". Marinespecies.org. 2007-07-18. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
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  40. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Amphiura palmeri'' Koehler, 1906 AphiaID: 125093". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  41. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Amphiura rathbuni'' Koehler, 1914 AphiaID: 242980". Marinespecies.org. 2007-07-18. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  42. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Amphiura stimpsoni'' Lütken, 1859 AphiaID: 242991". Marinespecies.org. 2007-07-18. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  43. ^ "Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) ''Asteronyx loveni'' Pipe-cleaner Brittlestar". EOL. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  44. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Asteronyx loveni'' Müller & Troschel, 1842 AphiaID: 124951". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  45. ^ "Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) ''Astrophyton muricatum'' Giant Basket Star". EOL. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  46. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Astrophyton muricatum'' (Lamarck, 1816) AphiaID: 243214". Marinespecies.org. 2007-07-18. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  47. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Microphiopholis atra'' (Stimpson, 1852) AphiaID: 158072". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  48. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Microphiopholis gracillima'' (Stimpson, 1854) AphiaID: 405791". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  49. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Ophiactis muelleri'' Lütken, 1856 AphiaID: 243460". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  50. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Ophiactis algicola'' H.L. Clark, 1933 AphiaID: 243434". Marinespecies.org. 2007-07-18. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  51. ^ "Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) ''Ophiactis savignyi'' Savigny's Brittle Star". EOL. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  52. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Ophiactis savignyi (Müller & Troschel, 1842) AphiaID: 125122". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
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  96. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Brissopsis elongata'' Mortensen, 1907 AphiaID: 422510". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
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  113. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Echinometra viridis'' A. Agassiz, 1863 AphiaID: 422493". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
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  126. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Meoma ventricosa'' (Lamarck, 1816) AphiaID: 367846". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  127. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Moira atropos'' (Lamarck, 1816) AphiaID: 158067". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  128. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Plagiobrissus grandis (Gmelin, 1788) AphiaID: 422511". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
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  136. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Astichopus multifidus'' (Sluiter, 1910) AphiaID: 241780". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  137. ^ "Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) ''Chiridota rotifera'' Worm Cucumber". EOL. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  138. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Chiridota rotifera (Pourtalès, 1851) AphiaID: 422538". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  139. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Euthyonacta solida'' (Deichmann, 1930) AphiaID: 422524". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
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  142. ^ "Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) ''Holothuria glaberrima'' Brown Rock Sea Cucumber". EOL. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  143. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Holothuria (Selenkothuria) glaberrima'' Selenka, 1867 AphiaID: 241851". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  144. ^ "Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) ''Holothuria grisea'' Gray Sea Cucumber". EOL. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  145. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Holothuria (Halodeima) grisea'' Selenka, 1867 AphiaID: 241833". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  146. ^ "Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) ''Holothuria impatiens'' Impatient Sea Cucumber". EOL. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  147. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Holothuria (Thymiosycia) impatiens'' (Forskål, 1775) AphiaID: 125185". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  148. ^ "Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) ''Holothuria mexicana'' Dunkey Dung Sea Cucumber". EOL. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  149. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Holothuria (Halodeima) mexicana'' Ludwig, 1875 AphiaID: 125180". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  150. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Holothuria (Cystipus) occidentalis Ludwig, 1875 AphiaID: 241826". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  151. ^ "Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) ''Holothuria parvula'' Golden Sea Cucumber". EOL. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  152. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Holothuria (Platyperona) parvula'' (Selenka, 1867) AphiaID: 125183". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  153. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Holothuria (Theelothuria) princeps'' Selenka, 1867 AphiaID: 210890". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  154. ^ "Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) ''Holothuria surinamensis'' Surinam Sea Cucumber". EOL. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  155. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Holothuria (Semperothuria) surinamensis'' Ludwig, 1875 AphiaID: 241858". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  156. ^ "Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) ''Holothuria thomasi'' Tiger Tail Sea Cocumber". EOL. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  157. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Holothuria (Thymiosycia) thomasi Pawson & Caycedo, 1980 AphiaID: 241876". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  158. ^ Isostichopus badionotus. "Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) ''Isostichopus badionotus'' Three-rowed Sea Cucumber". EOL. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  159. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Isostichopus badionotus'' (Selenka, 1867) AphiaID: 367868". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  160. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Lissothuria antillensis'' Pawson, 1967 AphiaID: 529094". Marinespecies.org. 2010-10-06. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  161. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Lissothuria braziliensis'' (Théel, 1886) AphiaID: 529525". Marinespecies.org. 2010-10-06. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
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  164. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Pseudothyone belli'' (Ludwig, 1887) AphiaID: 422535". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  165. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Sclerodactyla briareus'' (Lesueur, 1824) AphiaID: 158532". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  166. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Thyone pseudofusus'' Deichmann, 1930 AphiaID: 225684". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  167. ^ "World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) ''Thyonidium seguroensis'' (Deichmann, 1930) AphiaID: 529705". Marinespecies.org. 2010-10-06. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 

External links[edit]