List of welding processes

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This is a list of welding processes, separated into their respective categories. The associated N reference numbers (second column) are specified in ISO 4063 (in the European Union published as EN ISO 4063).[1] Numbers in parentheses are obsolete and were removed from the current (1998) version of ISO 4063. The AWS reference codes of the American Welding Society are commonly used in North America.[2]

Arc welding[edit]

Name N AWS Characteristics Applications
Bare Metal Arc Welding (113) BMAW Consumable electrode, no flux or shielding gas Historical
Carbon Arc Welding (181) CAW Carbon electrode, historical Copper, repair (limited)
Flux Cored Arc Welding 136
Continuous consumable electrode filled with flux Industry, construction
Gas Metal Arc Welding[3] 131
GMAW Continuous consumable electrode and shielding gas Industry
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding[4] 141 GTAW Nonconsumable electrode, slow, high quality welds Aerospace, Construction (piping), Tool and Die
Plasma Arc Welding 15 PAW Nonconsumable electrode, constricted arc Tubing, instrumentation
Shielded Metal Arc Welding[5] 111 SMAW Consumable electrode covered in flux, can weld any metal as long as they have the right electrode Construction, outdoors, maintenance
Submerged Arc Welding 121 SAW Automatic, arc submerged in granular flux
Magnetically Impelled Arc Butt Welding 185 MIAB Both tube ends are electrodes; no protection gas; arc rotates fast along edge by applied magnetic field Pipelines and tubes
Atomic Hydrogen Welding (149) AHW Two metal electrodes in hydrogen atmosphere Historical

Oxyfuel gas welding[edit]

Name N AWS Characteristics Applications
Air acetylene welding (321) AAW Chemical welding process, not popular Limited
Oxyacetylene welding 311 OAW Combustion of acetylene with oxygen produces high-temperature flame, inexpensive equipment Maintenance, repair
Oxygen/Propane welding 312 Gas welding with oxygen/propane flame
Oxyhydrogen welding 313 OHW Combustion of hydrogen with oxygen produces flame Limited
Pressure gas welding PGW Gas flames heat surfaces and pressure produces the weld Pipe, railroad rails (limited)

Resistance welding[edit]

Name N AWS Characteristics Applications
Resistance spot welding 21 RSW Two pointed electrodes apply pressure and current to two or more thin workpieces Automobile industry, Aerospace industry
Resistance seam welding[6] 22 RSEW Two wheel-shaped electrodes roll along workpieces, applying pressure and current Aerospace industry, steel drums, tubing
Projection welding 23 PW Semi-Automatic, Automatic, Welds are localized at predetermined points.
Flash welding 24 FW
Upset welding 25 UW Butt joint surfaces heated and brought together by force

Solid-state welding[edit]

Name N AWS Characteristics Applications
Coextrusion Welding CEW Dissimilar metals are extruded through the same die Joining of corrosion resistant alloys to cheaper alloys or alloys with more favorable mechanical properties
Cold pressure welding 48 CW Joining of soft alloys such as copper and aluminium below their melting point Electrical contacts
Diffusion welding 45 DFW No weld line visible Titanium pump impellor wheels
Explosion welding 441 EXW Joining of dissimilar materials, e.g. corrosion resistant alloys to structural steels Transition joints for chemical industry and shipbuilding. Bimetal pipelines
Electromagnetic pulse welding Tubes or sheets are accelerated by electromagnetic forces. Oxides are expelled during impact Automotive industry, pressure vessels, dissimilar material joints
Forge welding (43) FOW The oldest welding process in the world. Oxides must be removed by flux or flames. Damascus steel
Friction welding 42 FRW Thin heat affected zone, oxides disrupted by friction, needs sufficient pressure Aerospace industry, railway, land transport
Friction stir welding FSW A rotating non-consumable tool is traversed along the joint line Shipbuilding, aerospace, railway rolling stock, automotive industry
Friction stir spot welding FSSW A rotating non-consumable tool is plunged into overlapping sheets Automotive industry
Hot pressure welding HPW Metals are pressed together at elevated temperatures below the melting point in vacuum or an inert gas atmosphere Aerospace components
Hot isostatic pressure welding 47 HPW A hot inert gas applies the pressure inside a pressure vessel, i.e. an autoclave Aerospace components
Roll welding ROW Bimetallic materials are joined by forcing them between two rotating wheels Dissimilar materials
Ultrasonic welding 41 USW High-frequency vibratory energy is applied to foils, thin metal sheets or plastics. Solar industries-. Electronics. Rear lights of cars. Diapers.

Other types of welding[edit]

Name N AWS Characteristics Applications
Electron beam welding 51
EBW Deep penetration, fast, high equipment cost
Electroslag welding 72 ESW Welds thick workpieces quickly, vertical position, steel only,
continuous consumable electrode
Heavy plate fabrication, construction,
Flow welding (previously cast welding) Distortion is minimized, and the thermal cycle is relatively benign.[7][8][9][10][11] Joining rails in situ by liquid metal
Induction welding 74 IW
Laser beam welding 521
LBW Deep penetration, fast, high equipment cost Automotive industry
Laser-hybrid welding Combines LBW with GMAW in the same welding head, able to bridge gaps up to 2mm (between plates), previously not possible with LBW alone. Automotive, Shipbuilding, Steelwork industries
Percussion welding 77 PEW Following an electrical discharge, pressure is applied which forges the materials together Components of switch gear devices
Thermite welding 71 TW Exothermic reaction between aluminium powder and iron oxide powder Railway tracks
Electrogas welding 73 Continuous consumable electrode, vertical positioning, steel only Storage tanks, shipbuilding
Stud arc welding 78 Welds studs to base material with heat and pressure

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ ISO 4063: "Welding and allied processes - Nomenclature of processes and reference numbers" (1998)
  2. ^ "Welding Inspection Handbook", 3rd edition, American Welding Society, ISBN 0-87171-560-0, Miami, FL, pp. 10-11 (2000)
  3. ^ Also known as metal inert gas (MIG) welding or metal active gas (MAG) welding.
  4. ^ Also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding.
  5. ^ Also known as manual metal arc (MMA) welding or stick welding.
  6. ^ Also known as electric resistance welding (ERW).
  7. ^ "جوشکاری گدازی FLOW Welding | شریف +". (in Persian). Retrieved 2018-09-28.
  8. ^ Cast-Welding of Rail Joints. Street Railway Review, Vol. 4, Windsor & Kenfield Publishers, Chicago, 1894.
  9. ^ The Cast Welded Joint. The Street Railway Review, Vol. 6, No 10, 15 October 1896, p. 643.
  10. ^ Roadbed Construction in Chicago. Street Railway Journal, Vol. 15, No 10, October, 1899, p. 636-642.
  11. ^ Fred G. Simmons: The Cast-Welding of Rail Joints. In: Daily Street Railway Review, 27 September 1905, p. 650-654.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]