Lufeng Formation

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Lufeng Formation
Stratigraphic range: Sinemurian 197–190 Ma
TypeGeological formation
Unit ofLufeng Basin
Sub-unitsShawan Member, Zhangjia'ao Member
UnderliesChuanjie Formation
OverliesBasement
Thicknessover 300 metres (980 ft)
Lithology
PrimarySiltstone
OtherSandstone
Location
RegionAsia
Country China
ExtentYunnan

The Lufeng Formation (formerly Lower Lufeng Series) is a Lower Jurassic sedimentary rock formation found in Yunnan, China. It has two units: the lower Dull Purplish Beds/Shawan Member are of Hettangian age, and Dark Red Beds/Zhangjia'ao Member are of Sinemurian age.[1] It is known for its fossils of early dinosaurs. The Dull Purplish Beds have yielded the possible therizinosaur Eshanosaurus, the possible theropod Lukousaurus, and the "prosauropods" "Gyposaurus" sinensis, Lufengosaurus, Jingshanosaurus, and Yunnanosaurus. Dinosaurs discovered in the Dark Red Beds include the theropod Sinosaurus triassicus, the "prosauropods" "Gyposaurus", Lufengosaurus, and Yunnanosaurus, indeterminate remains of sauropods, and the early armored dinosaurs Bienosaurus and Tatisaurus.[2]

Paleofauna[edit]

Crurotarsans[edit]

Crurotarsans reported from the Lufeng Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes

Dianchungosaurus[3]

D. lufengensis[3]

Yunnan[3]

Dark Red Beds[3]

Formerly considered an ornithopod dinosaur.

Ornithischians[edit]

Indeterminate ornithopod remains Yunnan. Dark Red Beds.[2]

Ornithischians reported from the Lufeng Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes

Bienosaurus[3][4]

B. lufengensis[3]

Yunnan[3]

Dark Red Beds[3]

A right "[d]entary with teeth,"[5] with additional cranial fragments such as a partial frontal. These specimens are catalogued as IVPP V 9612. The dentary preserves 11 teeth or roots with two additional empty alveoli.

Tatisaurus[3]

T. oehleri[3]

Yunnan[3]

Dark Red Beds[3]

"Isolated dentary."[5]

Sauropodomorphs[edit]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Sauropodomorphs reported from the Lufeng Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Chuxiongosaurus[6]

C. lufengensis[6]

Yunnan[6]

"Skull[6]

Gyposaurus[7]

G. sinensis[7]

Yunnan[7]

  • Dark Red Beds[3]
  • Dull Purplish Beds[8]

"[Two] skeletons, [one] with partial skull, [two] partial skeletons, [three] skull fragments, adult."[9]

Fulengia[3]

F. youngi[3]

Yunnan[3]

  • Dark Red Beds[3]

"Skull."[10]

Jingshanosaurus[8]

J. xinwaensis[8]

Yunnan[8]

  • Dull Purplish Beds[8]

"Complete skeleton with skull, adult."[9]

Kunmingosaurus[3]

K. wusdingensis[3]

Yunnan[3]

  • Dark Red Beds[3]

Lufengosaurus[7]

L. huenei[7]

Yunnan[7]

  • Dark Red Beds[3]
  • Dull Purplish[8]

"(including Gyposaurus sinensis, L. magnus)"[2]

L. magnus[7]

Yunnan[7]

  • Dark Red Beds[3]
  • Dull Purplish[8]

Tawasaurus[3]

T. minor[3]

Yunnan[3]

  • Dark Red Beds[3]
Yizhousaurus[11] Y. sunae Yunnan Zhangjiaao Member Partial skeleton with skull

Yunnanosaurus[7]

Y. huangi[7]

Yunnan[7]

  • Dark Red Beds[3]
  • Dull Purplish[8]

"More than [twenty] partial to complete skeletons, [two] skulls, juvenile to adult."[10]

Y. robustus[7]

Yunnan[7]

  • Dark Red Beds[3]
  • Dull Purplish[8]

Theropods[edit]

Theropods reported from the Lower Lufeng Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Eshanosaurus[8]

E. deguchiianus[8]

Yunnan[8]

  • Dull Purplish Beds[8]

"Dentary."[12]

Possible therizinosaur

Sinosaurus triassicus

Lukousaurus[7]

L. yini[7]

Yunnan[7]

  • Dark Red Beds[3]
  • Dull Purplish Beds[8]
  • Holotype skull, tooth[13]
  • Three bone fragments[14]

Possible crocodylomorph[15]

Sinosaurus[7]

S. triassicus[7]

Yunnan[7]

  • Dark Red Beds[3]
  • Dull Purplish Beds[8]
  • Maxillary fragments, teeth, and a lower jaw fragment
  • Incomplete skull and other post-cranial fragments

Dilophosaurus sinensis specimen

Now included in Sinosaurus

Panguraptor[16] P. lufengensis[16] Yunnan[16]
  • Dull Purplish Beds[16]
  • Partial skeleton[16]
A coelophysid

Tritylodonts[edit]

Tritylodonts reported from the Lufeng Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Bienotherium

  • B. yuannanese
  • B. magnum

Yunnanodon[17][18]

Y. brevirostre[17]

Yunnan[17]

  • Dark Red Beds

Mammaliforms[edit]

Mammaliaforms reported from the Lufeng Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Hadrocodium[19]

H. wui[19]

Yunnan[19]

  • Dark Red Beds
Skull Oldest and one of smallest mammaliaforms known. Indicates a correlation between the separation of the middle ear bones from the mandible and the expanded brain vault in early mammals.[20]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Luo, Z., and X.-C. Wu. 1994. The small tetrapods of the Lower Lufeng Formation, Yunnan, China; pp. 251–270 in N. C. Fraser and H.-D.Sues (eds.), In the Shadow of the Dinosaurs. Cambridge University Press, New York
  2. ^ a b c Weishampel, et al. 2004.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae "48.3 Yunnan, People's Republic of China; 2. Dark Red Beds of the Lower Lufeng Series," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 534.
  4. ^ Raven, Thomas J.; Barrett, Paul M.; Xu, Xing; Maidment, Susannah C.R. (2019). "A reassessment of the purported ankylosaurian dinosaur Bienosaurus lufengensis from the Lower Lufeng Formation of Yunnan, China". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 64 (2): 335–342. doi:10.4202/app.00577.2018.
  5. ^ a b "Table 15.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 336.
  6. ^ a b c d Junchang, Lü; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Tianguang, Li; Shimin, Zhong (2010). "A New Basal Sauropod Dinosaur from the Lufeng Basin, Yunnan Province, Southwestern China". Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition). 84 (6): 1336–1342. doi:10.1111/j.1755-6724.2010.00332.x.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "48.3 Yunnan, People's Republic of China; 1. Dull Purplish Beds of the Lower Lufeng Series and 2. Dark Red Beds of the Lower Lufeng Series" in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 534.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "48.3 Yunnan, People's Republic of China; 1. Dull Purplish Beds of the Lower Lufeng Series," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 534.
  9. ^ a b "Table 12.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 234.
  10. ^ a b "Table 12.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 236.
  11. ^ Zhang, Qian-Nan; You, Hai-Lu; Wang, Tao; Chatterjee, Sankar (2018-09-07). "A new sauropodiform dinosaur with a 'sauropodan' skull from the Lower Jurassic Lufeng Formation of Yunnan Province, China". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 13464. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-31874-9. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 6128897. PMID 30194381.
  12. ^ "Table 7.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 152.
  13. ^ Young, C.C. (1948). "Further notes on Gyposaurus sinensis Young". Bulletin of the Geological Society of China. 28 (1–2): 91–103.
  14. ^ M. N. Bien. 1940. Discovery of Triassic saurischian and primitive mammalian remains at Lufeng, Yunnan. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 20(3/4):225-234
  15. ^ Irmis, R. B. (2004). "First report of Megapnosaurus (Theropoda: Coelophysoidea) from China". PaleoBios. 24 (3): 11–18.
  16. ^ a b c d e You, Hai-Lu; Azuma, Yoichi; Wang, Tao; Wang, Ya-Ming; Dong, Zhi-Ming. "The first well-preserved coelophysoid theropod dinosaur from Asia". Zootaxa. 3873 (3): 233–49. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3873.3.3. Retrieved 2017-09-17.
  17. ^ a b c Cui, G. H. (1976). "Yunnania, a new tritylodont genus from Lufeng, Yunnan". Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 25, : 1-7.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  18. ^ Cui, G. H. (1986). "Yunnanodon, a replacement name for Yunnania Cui, 1976". Gu Jizhui Dongwu yu Gu Renlei Vertebr. PalAsiatica. 24: 9.
  19. ^ a b c Luo, Zhe-Xi; Crompton, Alfred W.; Sun, Ai-Lin (2001). "A New Mammaliaform from the Early Jurassic and Evolution of Mammalian Characteristics (Supplementary Information (Hadrocodium wui IVPP8275))" (PDF). Science. 292 (5521): 1535–1540. Bibcode:2001Sci...292.1535L. doi:10.1126/science.1058476. PMID 11375489. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  20. ^ Luo, Zhe-Xi; Crompton, Alfred W.; Sun, Ai-Lin (2001). "A New Mammaliaform from the Early Jurassic and Evolution of Mammalian Characteristics" (PDF). Science. 292 (5521): 1535–1540. Bibcode:2001Sci...292.1535L. doi:10.1126/science.1058476. PMID 11375489. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-08-20.

References[edit]

  • Barrett, P.M.; Xu X. (2005). "Reassessment of Dianchungosaurus lufengensis Yang, 1982, an enigmatic reptile from the Lower Lufeng Formation (Lower Jurassic) of Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China". Journal of Paleontology. 79 (5): 981–986. doi:10.1666/0022-3360(2005)079[0981:ARODLY]2.0.CO;2.
  • Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; and Osmólska, Halszka (eds.): The Dinosauria, 2nd, Berkeley: University of California Press. 861 pp. ISBN 0-520-24209-2.