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Anatomical terminology

Lymphangiogenesis is the formation of lymphatic vessels from pre-existing lymphatic vessels[1] in a method believed to be similar to angiogenesis (blood vessel development).[2]

Lymphangiogenesis plays an important physiological role in homeostasis, metabolism and immunity. Impaired or excessive lymphatic vessel formation has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions including neoplasm metastasis,[3] oedema, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, lymphangiomatosis and impaired wound healing.

The role of the lymphatic system in these diseases has received renewed interest largely due to the discovery of lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC)-specific markers such as podoplanin, LYVE-1, PROX1, desmoplakin and VEGF-C receptor VEGFR-3.[4] These specific markers have enabled insights into functional and molecular lymphatic biology. There are several known pro-lymphangiogenesis inducers such as VEGF-C, hyaluronic acid and ephrin-B2.[citation needed]


  1. ^ Michael Jeltsch; Tuomas Tammela; Kari Alitalo; Jörg Wilting (2003). "Genesis and pathogenesis of lymphatic vessels". Cell and Tissue Research. 314 (1): 69–84. doi:10.1007/s00441-003-0777-2. PMID 12942362. S2CID 23318096.
  2. ^ "Lymphatic vasculature development" (PDF). Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  3. ^ Steven A. Stacker (1 July 2009). Lymphangiogenesis in Cancer Metastasis. Springer. pp. 27–. ISBN 978-90-481-2246-2. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
  4. ^ Jha, Sawan K.; Rauniyar, Khushbu; Jeltsch, Michael (2018). "Key molecules in lymphatic development, function, and identification". Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger. 219: 25–34. doi:10.1016/j.aanat.2018.05.003. PMID 29842991.

Further reading[edit]

Lymphangiogenesis and disease
  • Plate, Karl H (2001). "From angiogenesis to lymphangiogenesis". Nature Medicine. 7 (2): 151–152. doi:10.1038/84579. PMID 11175837. S2CID 27646199.
  • Jell, Gavin; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Revell, Peter; Al-Saffar, Najat (2006). "Lymphangiogenesis in the bone–implant interface of orthopedic implants: Importance and consequence". Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. 77A (1): 119–127. doi:10.1002/jbm.a.30548. PMID 16392126.
  • Ji, Rui-Cheng (2006). "Lymphatic Endothelial Cells, Lymphangiogenesis, and Extracellular Matrix". Lymphatic Research and Biology. 4 (2): 83–100. doi:10.1089/lrb.2006.4.83. PMID 16808670.