Gansu, Qing China
|Died||1954 (aged 43–44)|
Lanzhou, Gansu, People's Republic of China
|Allegiance||Republic of China|
|Years of service||1929–54|
|Unit||New 36th Division|
|Commands held||Deputy Divisional Commander of the New 36th Division then promoted to Chief of the New 36th Division|
|Battles/wars||Soviet Invasion of Xinjiang|
Xinjiang War (1937)
Kuomintang Islamic Insurgency in China (1950–1958)
Ma Hu-shan (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺧُﻮْ شً, traditional Chinese: 馬虎山; simplified Chinese: 马虎山; pinyin: Mǎ Hushān; 1910 – 1954) was a Hui (Chinese Muslim) warlord and the brother-in-law and follower of Ma Chung-ying, a Dungan/Hui Ma Clique warlord. He ruled over an area of Southern Xinjiang, nicknamed Tunganistan (named after the Dungans) by Westerners, from 1934 to 1937.
He was sometimes known as the "King of Tunganistan".
Ma Hushan fought against the Russian Red Army and White Russian forces during the Soviet Invasion of Xinjiang and defeated them in battle. “The Russ brought the fiji (airplane) and bombed and gassed us“ he said about the war.
He also took part in the war to destroy the First East Turkestan Republic, commanding the new 36th division at the Battle of Kashgar and Battle of Khotan.
Ma's 36th Division crushed the Charkhlik Revolt by the Uighurs in the Charkhlik oasis. It controlled southern Xinjiang's oasis and the area was nicknamed "Tunganistan" by Peter Fleming. Ma Hushan and the new 36th Division declared their loyalty to the Kuomintang government in Nanjing and sent emissaries there requesting aid to fight against Sheng Shicai's provincial forces and the Soviet Union.
Khotan was the base of Ma Hushan during his rule over the southern oases. His troops were said to be "strongly anti-Japanese", and the territory they ruled was covered with "most of the stock anti-Japanese slogans from China proper," and Ma made "Resistance to Japanese Imperialism" part of his governing doctrine. Ma Hushan himself was described by Ella Maillart as a "well-set-up long-legged man".
Ma's regime forced the switch from the old style to the manufacture of Chinese-style carpets by the government-owned factory. He ordered the creation of "small blue carpets", "woven in Khotan". They were of Chinese design, with Chinese writing on them. Peter Birchler mistakenly said that Ma Hushan's brother-in-law Ma Zhongying was the client of the carpet factory.
Xinjiang War (1937)
Ma Hushan formulated a plan for an anti-Soviet "jihad" to conquer the Kremlin, Russian Turkestan and Siberia. He promised a devastated Europe and the conquering of Russia and India. The anti-Soviet client uprising by Ma Hsi Jung (Ma Ho San) was reported by United Press International (UPI) 3 June 1937.
Ma's troops were defeated by Sheng Shicai and the Soviets, and many of them deserted or defected. Ma fled to British India. He brought with him thousands of ounces of gold, which was confiscated by the British. The British kept that money to pay for the alleged "looting" of British property in Kashgar by Ma's troops, but eventually sent the money "back" to Sheng Shicai's regime. He was briefly detained by the British, then took a steamer from Calcutta back to China—specifically Qinghai province—in 1938.
British telegrams from India in 1937 said that Tungans like Ma Zhongying and Ma Hushan had reached an agreement with the Soviets, whom they had previously fought, that since the Japanese had begun full-scale warfare with China, that Tungans led by Ma Hushan would help Chinese forces battle Japan, and that he would return to Gansu.
Sven Hedin wrote that Ma Hushan would "certainly obey the summons" to join the Chinese side against Japan in the war.
Kuomintang Islamic insurgency in China (1950–58)
Ma led the Kuomintang Islamic insurgency in China from 1950 to 1954 against the PLA using guerrilla tactics. He was captured in 1954 and executed at Lanzhou.
- ^ a b M. Rafiq Khan (1963). Islam in China. Delhi: National Academy. p. 63.
- ^ Forbes, Andrew D. W. (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. ISBN 978-0-521-25514-1.
- ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes: Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949, Cambridge (England) 1986, p. 128.
- ^ Dickens, Mark. "The Soviets in Xinjiang 1911–1949". Oxus Communications. Archived from the original on 23 October 2008. Retrieved 18 November 2008.
- ^ Ahmad Kamal (1 August 2000). Land Without Laughter. iUniverse. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-595-01005-9.
- ^ Chahryar Adle; Madhavan K. Palat; Anara Tabyshalieva (2005). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Towards the Ccontemporary Period: From the Mid-Nineteenth to the End of the Twentieth Century. UNESCO. p. 395. ISBN 92-3-103985-7.
- ^ Andrew D.W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 134. ISBN 0-521-25514-7.
- ^ Kumara Padmanabha Sivasankara Menon (1947). Delhi-Chungking: a travel diary. Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. p. 103.
- ^ Andrew D.W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-521-25514-1.
- ^ Ella Maillart (2003). Forbidden journey: from Peking to Kashmir (illustrated ed.). Northwestern University Press. p. 230. ISBN 0-8101-1985-4.
- ^ Andrew D.W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 131. ISBN 0-521-25514-7.
- ^ Hali, The International Magazine of Antique Carpet and Textile Art, Issues 135–137. Oguz Press. 2004. p. 69.
- ^ Ahmad Kamal (1 August 2000). Land Without Laughter. iUniverse. pp. 163–. ISBN 978-0-595-01005-9.
- ^ Ahmad Kamal (1 August 2000). Land Without Laughter. iUniverse. pp. 164–. ISBN 978-0-595-01005-9.
- ^ Ahmad Kamal (1 August 2000). Land Without Laughter. iUniverse. pp. 327–. ISBN 978-0-595-01005-9.
- ^ Sven Hedin (2009). The Silk Road: Ten Thousand Miles Through Central Asia. I.B. Tauris. p. 309. ISBN 978-1-84511-898-3.
- ^ Great Britain. Foreign Office (1997). British documents on foreign affairs—reports and papers from the Foreign Office confidential print: From 1940 through 1945. Asia, Part 3. University Publications of America. p. 401. ISBN 1-55655-674-8.
- ^ Alastair Lamb (1991). Kashmir: a disputed legacy, 1846–1990 (3, reprint ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 80. ISBN 0-19-577423-X.
- ^ Andrew D.W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 143. ISBN 0-521-25514-7.
- ^ The Silk Road. Taylor & Francis. 1973. p. 308.
Sino-Japanese hostilities,. . . and the Tungan military leaders. . . are now preparing to support the Chinese forces. . .Gen. Ma Chung-yin. . . is proceeding to Kansu to assist the Chinese . . .His half-brother, Gen. Ma Ho-san, who recently fled to Calbutta when the Tungan rebellion collapsed, has also been invited to assist the Chinese. His departure for Kansu is regarded as a certainty. . .The other Tungan general who is mentioned in the telegram from Delhi, the cavalry commander Ma Ho-san, who is not Ma Chung-yin's brother, though probably a relative, is also mentioned in Big Horse's Flight.
- ^ Sven Hedin (2009). The Silk Road: Ten Thousand Miles Through Central Asia (reprint, illustrated ed.). I. B. Tauris. p. 308. ISBN 978-1-84511-898-3.
The other Tungan general who is mentioned in the telegram from Delhi, the cavalry commander Ma Ho-san--who was not Ma Chung-yin's brother, though probably a relative--is also mentioned in Big Horse's Flight.
- ^ The Silk Road. Taylor & Francis. 1973. p. 309.
And now the Delhi telegram says that Ma Ho-san, in Calcutta, has received an invitation to go to Kansu and support the Chinese, and that he will certainly obey the summons.
- ^ Hao-jan Kao (1960). The Imam's Story. Hong Kong: Green Pagoda Press. pp. 95, 97, 106.
- ^ Andrew D.W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 310. ISBN 0-521-25514-7.
- Xinjiang Wars
- Hui people
- Republic of China warlords from Gansu
- National Revolutionary Army generals from Gansu
- Ma clique
- Chinese Nationalist military figures
- Members of the Kuomintang
- Chinese anti-communists
- 20th-century executions by China
- 1910 births
- 1958 deaths
- Executed Republic of China people
- Executed people from Gansu