- "a listening-based analytical system which views music via harmonic motion to and from a target chord or tonic. Its traditional application involves tonal music based upon "circle-of-fifths" root motion, however, this application can be extended to include other kinds of music that involve some sort of regular, directed harmonic motion."
The method was invented by Bruce Benward and is described in Benward & Saker's Music: In Theory and Practice. Uppercase or lowercase letters are used to indicate the roots of chords, followed by symbols which specify the chord quality.
|Major triad||Uppercase||C||Play (help·info)|
|Minor triad||Lowercase||c||Play (help·info)|
|Augmented triad||Uppercase||+||C+||Play (help·info)|
|Diminished triad||Lowercase||o||co||Play (help·info)|
Slurs are used to indicate motion, with solid slurs connecting roots a descending fifth or ascending fourth apart or dotted slurs indicating leading-tone resolution (in a dominant substitution). Macro analysis, placed below the score, may be accompanied by Roman numeral analysis, placed below it.
Other systems of notation for chords include: plain staff notation, used in classical music, Roman numerals, commonly used in harmonic analysis, figured bass, much used in the Baroque era, and various names and symbols used in jazz and popular music.
- Benward & Saker (2003). Music: In Theory and Practice, Vol. I, p.74-75. Seventh Edition. ISBN 978-0-07-294262-0.
- Benward & Saker (2003). Music: In Theory and Practice, Vol. I, p. 77. Seventh Edition. ISBN 978-0-07-294262-0.
- Arnold Schoenberg, Structural Functions of Harmony, Faber and Faber, 1983, p.1-2.