May 26, 1883
Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S. (unconfirmed)
|Died||September 16, 1946
Staten Island, New York, U.S.
|Occupation||Actress, dancer, singer|
|Spouse(s)||William "Smitty" Smith (m. 1913-19??)
Jack Goldberg (unconfirmed)
Mamie Smith (née Robinson; May 26, 1883 – September 16, 1946) was an American vaudeville singer, dancer, pianist and actress, who appeared in several films late in her career. As a vaudeville singer she performed a number of styles, including jazz and blues. She entered blues history by being the first African-American artist to make vocal blues recordings in 1920. Willie "The Lion" Smith (no relation) explained the background to that recording in his autobiography, Music on My Mind.
Mamie Robinson was probably born in Cincinnati, Ohio, although no records of her birth exist. When she was ten years old, she found work touring with a white act called the Four Dancing Mitchells. As a teenager, she danced in Salem Tutt Whitney's Smart Set. In 1913, she left the Tutt Brothers to sing in clubs in Harlem and married a singer named William "Smitty" Smith.
On February 14, 1920, Mamie Smith cut "That Thing Called Love" and "You Can't Keep A Good Man Down" on Okeh Records, in New York City, after African-American songwriter and bandleader Perry Bradford persuaded Fred Hagar. The record marked the first time that a black blues singer was recorded; the musicians however were all white. Fred Hagar had received multiple threats from Northern and Southern pressure groups saying they would boycott the company if he was to record a black singer. Despite these threats the record was a commercial success and opened the door for more black musicians to record their music. Smith's biggest hit was recorded later, on August 10, 1920. Smith recorded a set of songs written by Perry Bradford, including "Crazy Blues" and "It's Right Here For You (If You Don't Get It, 'Tain't No Fault of Mine)", again on Okeh Records., and the record became a best seller, selling a million copies in less than a year.
Large numbers of the record were purchased by African Americans, and there was a sharp increase in the popularity of race records. Because of the historical significance of "Crazy Blues", it was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1994, and, in 2005, was selected for permanent preservation in the National Recording Registry at the Library of Congress.
Although other African Americans had been recorded earlier, such as George W. Johnson in the 1890s, they were African-American artists performing music which had a substantial following with European-American audiences. The success of Smith's record prompted record companies to seek to record other female blues singers and started the era of what is now known as classic female blues.
Smith continued to make a series of popular recordings for Okeh throughout the 1920s. In 1924 she made three releases for Ajax Records which, while heavily promoted, did not sell well. She made some records for Victor. She toured the United States and Europe with her band "Mamie Smith & Her Jazz Hounds" as part of "Mamie Smith's Struttin' Along Review".
She was billed as "The Queen of the Blues". This billing was soon one-upped by Bessie Smith, who called herself "The Empress of the Blues." Mamie found that the new mass medium of radio provided a way to gain additional fans, especially in cities with predominantly white audiences. For example, she and several members of her band performed on KGW in Portland, Oregon in early May 1923, and garnered positive reviews.
Various recording lineups of her Jazz Hounds included (from August 1920 to October 1921) Jake Green, Curtis Moseley, Garvin Bushell, Johnny Dunn, Dope Andrews, Ernest Elliot, Porter Grainger, Leroy Parker, Bob Fuller, and (June 1922-January 1923) Coleman Hawkins, Everett Robbins, Johnny Dunn, Herschel Brassfield, Herb Flemming, Buster Bailey Cutie Perkins, Joe Smith, Bubber Miley and Cecil Carpenter.
While recording with her Jazz Hounds, she also recorded as "Mamie Smith and Her Jazz Band", comprising George Bell, Charles Matson, Nathan Glantz, Larry Briers, Jules Levy, Jr., Joe Samuels, together with musicians from the Jazz Hounds, including Coleman, Fuller and Carpenter.
Film career and later years
Mamie Smith appeared in an early sound film, Jailhouse Blues, in 1929. She retired from recording and performing in 1931. She returned to performing in 1939 to appear in the motion picture Paradise in Harlem produced by her husband Jack Goldberg.
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
|1921||"Fare Thee Honey Blues"||9|
|"Royal Garden Blues"||13|
|"You Can't Keep a Good Man Down"||4|
|1922||"Lonesome Mama Blues"||6|
|1923||"You Can Have Him, I Don't Want Him Blues"||13|
|"You've Got to See Mama Ev'ry Night (Or You Can't See Mama At All)"||13|
- Oliver, Paul, "Smith (née Robinson), Mamie", The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz (2 ed.) (Oxford University Press), retrieved April 22, 2010 (registration required)
- Tracy, Steven C. (1998). Going to Cincinnati: A History of the Blues in the Queen City. University of Illinois Press. p. 5. ISBN 0-252-06709-6.
- Gates, Henry Louis; Higginbotham, Evelyn Brooks (2009). Harlem Renaissance Lives from the African American National Biography. Oxford University Press US. p. 458. ISBN 0-19-538795-3.
- The Devil's Music - A history of the Blues, Gilles Oakley, Da Capo Press Inc, 1976, p 83-84
- Weisenfeld, Judith (2007). Hollywood Be Thy Name: African American religion in American Film, 1929-1949. University of California Press. p. 287. ISBN 0-520-25100-8.
- Whalan, Mark (2010). American Culture in the 1910s. Edinburgh University Press. p. 148. ISBN 0-7486-3424-X.
- Du Noyer, Paul (2003). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Music (1st ed.). Fulham, London, UK: Flame Tree Publishing. p. 154. ISBN 1-904041-96-5.
- Schuller, Gunther (1986). Early jazz: its roots and musical development. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 226. ISBN 0-19-504043-0.
- Gates & Higginbotham, p. 460
- Grammy Hall of Fame
- McCann, Bob (2010). Encyclopedia of African American Actresses in Film and Television. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. p. 309. ISBN 978-0786437900.
- Sutton, Allan; Nauck, Kurt (2000). American Record Labels and Companies - An Encyclopedia (1891-1943). Denver, Colorado: Mainspring Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 0-9671819-0-9.
- Kernfeld, Barry Dean (2002). "Mamie Smith". The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz (vol. 3, 2nd ed.). London, UK: Macmillan. p. 615. ISBN 1-56159-284-6.
- "Broadcasting from KGW", Portland Oregonian, May 5, 1923, p. 11.
- Gibbs, Craig Martin (2012), Black Recording Artists, 1877-1926: An Annotated Discography, pp. 73-122. McFarland. Retrieved May 2013.
- Gibbs (2012), Black Recording Artists, 1877-1926, pp. 88-106. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
- Mamie Smith at the Internet Movie Database
- Whitburn, Joel (1986). Pop Memories: 1890-1954. Record Research. ISBN 0-89820-083-0.
- Mamie Smith African American Registry
- Mamie Smith at AllMusic
- Mamie Smith Blues Online Biography with photos
- Mamie Smith on RedHotJazz.com with .ram files of her early recordings
- Mamie Smith and the Birth of the Blues Market. NPR special on the selection on "Crazy Blues"