Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation

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The Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation (MHA Nation), also known as the Three Affiliated Tribes (Mandan: Miiti Naamni; Hidatsa: Awadi Aguraawi; Arikara: ačitaanu' táWIt), is a Native American Nation resulting from the alliance of the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara peoples, whose native lands ranged across the Missouri River basin extending from present day North Dakota through western Montana and Wyoming.

After the signing of the Fort Laramie Treaty and subsequent taking of land, the Nation's land base is currently approximately 1 million acres located Fort Berthold Reservation in northwestern North Dakota. The Tribe reported a total enrollment of 16,750 living enrolled tribal members as of November 13, 2020.[1][2] Nearly 5,200 live on the reservation; others live and work elsewhere.

History[edit]

Recent history[edit]

Arikara, Hidatsa and Mandan 1851 treaty territory. (Area 529, 620 and 621 south of the Missouri). Fort Berthold Indian Reservation included land both south and north of the Missouri (the light pink area). The acreage of the reservation was reduced later.

Membership/Citizenship Qualifications[edit]

Membership (Citizenship) is derived from the 1936 Indian Census roll of the Three Affiliated Tribes. In 2010 the tribal membership passed amendments specifying "blood quantum," or minimum amounts of tribal ancestry to qualify individuals for membership and for candidates for public office. Effective December 16, 2010 individuals must have at least 1/8 Mandan, Hidatsa, or Arikara ancestry (the equivalent of one full-blooded great-grandparent) to become an enrolled member of the MHA Nation and 1/4 ancestry to serve in elected office.[3]

Tribal Business Council[edit]

The Tribal Business Council consists of six Segment Representatives and a Chairman. Each member's term lasts 4 years, and there are no term limits. The Tribal Business Council holds Regular Meetings on the second Thursday of each month, and sub-committees meet at different times throughout the month. A legal quorum as defined in the constitution of the Three Affiliated Tribes is 5 of the 7 council representatives.[4]

Position Council Representative Segment Term Began Term Expires
Chairman Mark N. Fox MHA Nation 2018 2022
Vice-Chairman Cory Spotted Bear Twin Buttes 2018 2022
Treasurer Mervin Packineau Parshall/Lucky Mound 2018 2022
Executive Secretary Fred W. Fox White Shield 2020 2024
Member V. Judy Brugh Four Bears 2018 2022
Member Sherry Turner-Lone Fight Mandaree 2020 2024
Member Dr. Monica Mayer New Town/Little Shell 2020 2024
Sub-Committees
Executive Committee
Chair Mark N. Fox
Vice-Chair Cory Spotted Bear
Executive Secretary Fred W. Fox
Treasurer Mervin Packineau
Cultural Committee
Chair Sherry Turner-Lone Fight
Member Cory Spotted Bear
Member V. Judy Brugh
Economic Committee
Chair Dr. Monica Mayer
Member Cory Spotted Bear
Member V. Judy Brugh
Education Committee
Chair Dr. Monica Mayer
Member Sherry Turner-Lone Fight
Member V. Judy Brugh
Energy Committee
Chair Fred W. Fox
Member Cory Spotted Bear
Member Dr. Monica Mayer
Health & Human Resources Committee
Chair Dr. Monica Mayer
Member Fred W. Fox
Member Cory Spotted Bear
Judicial Committee
Chair V. Judy Brugh
Member Dr. Monica Mayer
Member Fred W. Fox
Natural Resources Committee
Chair Cory Spotted Bear
Member Fred W. Fox
Member V. Judy Brugh

Mandan[edit]

The Mandan, who refer to themselves as Nueta, are a Native American tribe currently part of the Three Affiliated Tribes of North Dakota. At the height of their historic culture, the Mandan were prosperous and peaceful farmers and traders, noted for their excellent maize cultivation and crafting of Knife River flint. They built earth lodges, and made villages of considerable technical skill, and cultivated many varieties of maize. They were a more sedentary people than other, more nomadic tribes of the Great Plains.

Lewis and Clark stayed with the Mandan when they passed through the Upper Missouri region on their expedition to the Northwest, including five months in the winter of 1804–1805. Sakakawea, a Hidatsa who has subsequently been claimed by both the Shoshone and Hidatsa, joined the expedition as an interpreter and native guide. Because of her role in salvaging the expedition, she was honored with an image on the U.S. dollar coin. On the return trip, the expedition brought the Mandan chief Sheheke Shote with them back to Washington, DC.

The smallpox epidemic of 1837–1838 decimated the Mandan, leaving approximately 125 survivors and severely impacting their society. They banded together with the Hidatsa to survive. Later, when the Arikara were forced northward by wars with the Lakota, they also settled with the Hidatsa and Mandan forming a confederacy that would later be known as the Three Affiliated Tribes. The Nation now commonly uses the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Nation in most situations although The Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation is used as well.

Arikara, Hidatsa and Mandan 1851 treaty territory. (Area 529, 620 and 621 south of the Missouri). The Fort Berthold Reservation is located on a significantly reduced portion of the land guaranteed to the three tribes under the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851. Further, they had their only permanent village (Like-a-Fishhook Village) here in 1870.

When European-American settlers began arriving in this territory in number in the late 19th century, the US relocated the three tribes to the Fort Berthold Reservation in 1870. Under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, the tribes formed a tribal government which they called the Three Affiliated Tribes, a sovereign Tribal Nation. Today over 15,000 tribal members live throughout the United States and internationally, however the population is concentrated on the reservation and nearby cities in North Dakota.

Some explorers described the Mandan and their structures as having "European" features. In the 19th century, a few people used such anecdotes to speculate that the Mandan were, in part, descended from lost European settlers who had arrived at North America before 1492, the voyage of Christopher Columbus. One legend associated them with having Welsh ancestry. Historians and anthropologists have debated this history, however, the MHA people and their oral tradition agree that there was historic admixture. This is the legend of Madoc ab Owein, popularized in relation to the Mandan in the 19th century by the painter George Catlin. The current center of Mandan culture and population is the community of Twin Buttes, North Dakota.

Hidatsa[edit]

Pehriska-Ruhpa of the Dog Band of the Hidatsa, c. 1832–1834, by Karl Bodmer.

The Hidatsa, called Moennitarri by their allies the Mandan, are a Siouan-speaking people. The Hidatsa name for themselves (autonym) is Nuxbaaga ("Original People"). The name Hidatsa said to mean "willows," was that of one band's village, after a prominent landscape feature. When the villages consolidated, the tribe used that name for their people as a whole.

Their language is related to that of the Crow nation. They have been considered a parent tribe to the modern Crow in Montana. The Hidatsa have sometimes been confused with the Gros Ventre, another tribe which was historically in Montana. In 1936, the Bureau of Indian Affairs compiled the Tribe's Base Roll listing all Hidatsa as "G.V.", for Gros Ventre. Today about 30 full-blood Hidatsa are members of the Affiliated Three Tribes. Most Hidatsa people have ancestry also of the Mandan and Arikara tribes.

Arikara[edit]

The Arikara call themselves Sahnish.[5] The Arikara were forced into Mandan territory by conflict with the Lakota (Sioux), between the Arikara War and the European-American settlement in the 1870s. The Arikara lived for many years near the Fort Clark trading post, also called Knife River.

In 1862 they joined the Hidatsa and Mandan at Like-a-Fishhook Village, near the Fort Berthold trading post. For work, the Arikara men scouted for the U. S. Army, stationed at nearby Fort Stevenson. In 1874, the Arikara scouts guided Custer on the Black Hills Expedition, during which his party discovered gold. This resulted in a rush of miners to the area, causing conflict with the Lakota, who considered the Black Hills to be sacred.

In 1876, a large group of Arikara men accompanied Custer and the 7th Cavalry on the Little Big Horn Expedition. Arikara scouts were in the lead when US Army forces attacked the widespread encampment of thousands of Sioux and Cheyenne warriors and families. Several scouts drove off Lakota horses, as they had been ordered, and others fought alongside the troopers. Three Arikara men were killed: Little Brave, Bobtail Bull, and Bloody Knife. During the subsequent confusion, when the scouts were cut off from the troopers, they returned to the base camp as they had been directed. After the battle, in which Custer and some 260 other US troops were killed, the search for scapegoats resulted in some critics mistakenly accusing the scouts of having abandoned the soldiers.

Notable tribal members[edit]

  • Ruth Buffalo, elected to the North Dakota House of Representatives in 2018
  • Erica Thunder, Commissioner, North Dakota Department of Labor and Human Rights, youngest and first Native American to hold such Cabinet position
  • Edward Lone Fight (b. 1940), former Chairman of the Three Affiliated Tribes
  • Tex G. Hall, Chairman of the Three Affiliated Tribes from 1998 to 2006
  • Denise Juneau, State Superintendent of Public Instruction for Montana
  • Destrey Zarfos, Disc Jockey for 93X Minneapolis-St. Paul rock radio station
  • John (Buzz) Fredericks, National Indian Cattleman’s Association president from 1974-‘79, American Indian Agricultural Credit Consortium as president and Board member in the 1970s and the American Quarter Horse Association
  • Chloe Fredericks, Singer, Songwriter
  • James Dancing Bull, Professional Heavyweight Boxer, 4-0-1, 2 KO, As an amateur 4 time (2014-2017) Region 3 Golden Gloves Champion 201+lb, 2014 and 2017 Upper Midwest Golden Gloves Champion 201+lb, Amateur MMA Record 3-0, 3 KO
  • Zebadiah Demaray, Amateur Boxer, 2017 Region 3 Golden Gloves Champion, 2017 Upper Midwest Golden Gloves Champion 201lb, 2017 Ringside World Champion Novice 201lb, 2018 USA Boxing Western Nationals Bronze 91kg Elite, 2018 Region 3 Golden Gloves Champion, 2018 USA Boxing #10 Ranked Elite Male 91kg
  • Samuel Demaray, Amateur Boxer, 2017 Region 3 Golden Gloves Champion 126lb, 2018 Region 3 Golden Gloves Champion 138lbs
  • Maroni Hale, 2019 National Silver Gloves National Champion 138lbs
  • Cannupa Hanska Luger, visual artist

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Demographics | North Dakota Studies". ndstudies.gov. Archived from the original on 3 November 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  2. ^ Taft, Sevant (13 July 2018). "Three Affiliated Tribes Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation Office of Tribal Enrollment" (PDF). mhanation.com. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  3. ^ "MHA Nation Tribal Enrollment FAQ". mhanation.com. MHA Nation. 2012. Archived from the original on 20 February 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  4. ^ "Elected Officials". mhanation.com. MHA Nation. 2014. Archived from the original on 28 January 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  5. ^ "History: The Sahnish (Arikara)." Archived 9 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation. Retrieved 29 September 2011.

References[edit]

  • Gilman, Carolyn, Mary Lane Schneider, et al. The Way to Independence: Memories of a Hidatsa Indian Family, 1840–1920. St Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1987. ISBN 978-0-87351-209-1.
  • Libby, Orin G., ed. Arikara Narrative of Custer's Campaign and the Battle of the Little Bighorn, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998. ISBN 978-0-8061-3072-9.
  • Hammer, Ken. With Custer in '76, Norman: University of Oklahoma, 1976.
  • Matthews, Washington. Ethnography and Philology of the Hidatsa Indians, U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey, 1877.
  • Nichols, Ron. Men with Custer, revised ed. Hardin, MT: Custer Battlefield Historical and Museum Association, 2000.
  • Wilson, Gilbert Livingstone, Ph.D. Agriculture of the Hidatsa Indians: an Indian Interpretation, University of Minnesota, 1917.

External links[edit]