Micko Krstić

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Micko Krstić
Micko Krstić.jpg
Vojvoda Micko
Nickname(s) Porečki
Born ca. 1855
Latovo, Sanjak of Monastir, Ottoman Empire (now Makedonski Brod, R. Macedonia)
Died October 29, 1909
Ižište, Monastir, Ottoman Empire
Allegiance
  • Kingdom of Serbia Serbian Army (1876–78)
  • Serbian Chetniks (1904–09)
Years of service 1876–81, 1904–09
Rank vojvoda, harambaša
Unit
  • Morava Army (1876–78)
  • Poreče bands (1880–81)
  • Poreče bands (1904–09)

Micko Krstić-Porečki (Serbian Cyrillic: Мицко Крстић, 1855 – October 29, 1909), known as Vojvoda Micko, was a Serbian rebel leader in the Poreče region.

Origin and early life[edit]

Krstić was born in Latovo, near Makedonski Brod in the Poreče region, at the time part of the Sanjak of Monastir, Ottoman Empire (now Republic of Macedonia). His family hailed from nearby Trebino. His birth year is mostly given as ca. 1855, and scarcely as ca. 1840.[1] He espoused a Serb identity. His teacher in Latovo was Obradović.[2]

Serbian–Ottoman War (1876–78) and aftermath[edit]

He volunteered in the Serbian–Ottoman War (1876–78).[3] He then participated in the Kumanovo Uprising (January 20 — May 20, 1878).

After the war, the Serbian military government sent armament and aid to rebels in Kosovo and Macedonia.[4] Christian rebel bands were formed all over the region.[4] Many of those bands, privately funded and aided by the government, were established in Serbia and crossed into Ottoman territory.[4] In that way, Micko Krstić formed a rebel band in 1879 in Niš, with the help of Nikola Rašić and the military government in Vranje.[4]

Micko's bands received weapons and ammunition in Vranje.[5] It crossed the border and came into conflict with Ottomans in around Kriva Palanka, where many of his fighters were killed.[5] With only one comrade, Micko went to Poreče and joined the band of Stevan Petrović–Porečanin, established in the same year.[5]

Brsjak Revolt[edit]

On 14 October 1880, an uprising broke out in Poreče, known as the Brsjak Revolt.[6] Micko was one of the leaders, along with Ilija Delija, Rista Kostadinović, and Anđelko Tanasević.[7] This uprising would span little more than a year.[6]

In springtime 1881, in the Devet Jugovića-inn in Vranje, Micko Krstić assembled a band of 13 fighters, friends, blood-brothers and followers, left Serbia in springtime 1881.[8] One of the members were Čakr-paša.[9] Their first teacher and leader was Čerkez Ilija.[8] In April 1881, the bands of Čerkez Ilija and Micko were surrounded near Kriva Palanka.[9] The bands were devastated by a force of Ottoman soldiers and Albanians, with Čerkez Ilija and his band all dead, Micko and the survivors fled for safety.[9] In the fight, half of Micko's band fell.[8] Micko and the survivors crossed the mountains heading to Poreče,[8] while Čakr-paša stayed on the Kozjak.[9]

He had succeeded in leading the četa (rebel band) of Rista Kostadinović when Rista had died in battle.[when?][8] He was given Rista's gun which was ornamented with silver and nacre.[8] He was suited with the red vojvoda mintan (under jacket) by tailors in Kičevo in secrecy during the night.[8] Serbia secretly and carefully aided the Christians in the Ottoman areas; in the Brsjak revolt, however, by the end of 1881, the aid was stopped by the intervention of the Ottoman government.[10] The Ottoman army succeeded in suppressing the rebellion in the winter of 1880/1881, and many of the leaders were exiled.[11] When the revolt had been suppressed in Demir-Hisar, Micko refused to give himself up.[8] The Brsjak Revolt, and the preceding ones in Kumanovo, Kriva Palanka and Kratovo, had all a Serbian character, planned in the Serbian cause, thus, the unsuccessful outcome resulted in persecution of Serbs in the Macedonia region, with an increased Bulgarization of the region's Christian Slavic populace.[12]

Imprisonment[edit]

Micko in traditional attire.

Krstić was imprisoned in 1882 by the Ottomans, and held in the Bitola prison. He was sentenced to 20 years imprisonment.[13] He wrote nine letters to the Serbian consulate in Bitola, Milojko Veselinović.[14] During the Greco-Turkish War (1897), the Bulgarians granted amnesty to Bulgarians held in Ottoman prisons; Micko refused to identify as Bulgarian and stayed in jail.[13] Finally, in 1901, the Serbian consulate managed to have him released, though he was under house arrest in Bitola, and was obliged to contact the town government every day.[15]

Meanwhile, the first Serbian guerilla bands were formed through self-organizing of Serb villages in Poreče, Kumanovo and Kratovo provinces, which, along Veles, were exposed the most to Bulgarian violence.[15] Krstić's escape, on April 4, 1904, was organized by Savatije Milošević, of the Bitola Consulate, Jovan Ćirković-Ćifa, a secretary of Metropolitan Polikarp, Lazar Kujundžić, manager of schools in Kičevo, and Marko Cerić.[15] The presence of the Serbian bands were soon felt in the regions.[15] Of the 40 villages in Poreče, only one village, Lokvica, adhered to the Bulgarian Exarchate.[15]

Serbian Chetnik Organization[edit]

Chetnik Dušan, Vojvoda Micko, Vojvoda Jovan Dovezenski, Chetnik Gligorije.

Micko Krstić was selected as the supreme vojvoda (commander) for Poreče.[15] The first success of the četa (band) of Vojvoda Micko came with the conflict against 8 combined Bulgarian bands led by Dame Gruev, who sought to violently return the Poreče villages to the Bulgarian Exarchate and thereby strengthen the Bulgarian influence in those villages.[15] The conflict took place near Slatine in Poreče on October 5, 1904.[15] The Bulgarian bands were resting in a ravine following clashes with the Ottoman army at Movnatac, located at the entrance of Poreče.[15] The Serbian Chetniks, numbering c. 40 fighters, silently surrounded them, and with a sudden raid, destroyed the five-times greater enemy.[15] On that occasion, Bulgarian commander Đurčin and four Bulgarian fighters were killed, a large number were wounded, and the rest fled and scattered.[15] Among the wounded were Gruev, who Micko captured.[15] On the orders of Interior Minister Nikola Pašić, Gruev was freed.[15] He was escorted to the village of Solnje near Skopje, from where he travelled to Sofia.[15]

At the end of 1904, the old and exhausted Micko moved to Kragujevac, where he lived on the expenses of the Serbian Committee.[15] Zafir Premčević was his assistant.

In September 1909 the Turkish government issued a law on the suppression of rebels in Rumelia.

Death[edit]

He was assassinated in Ižište, on the BrodKičevo road on October 29, 1909. Rebel activity was re-activated.

Legacy[edit]

Painter Nadežda Petrović (1873–1915) wrote a drama on his life.[16]

See also[edit]

Annotations[edit]

  • His name is Micko Krstić (Serbian Cyrillic: Мицко Крстић, Macedonian: Мицко Крстиќ). His surname is sometimes spelled Krstević (Крстевић), and his full name sometimes include the byname of Pavlovski (sr. Павловски, mk. Павлевски).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Marinko Paunović (1998). Srbi: biografije znamenitih : A-Š. Emka.
  2. ^ Jovan Hadži-Vasiljević (1928). Prosvetne i političke prilike u južnim srpskim oblastima u XIX v: (do srpsko turskih ratova 1876-78). Društvo Sv. Save. p. 422.

    ... и тамо се настанио. Обрадовић је био свршио четири разреда гимназије у Београду и Богословију. Између осталога. учитељевао је и у селу Латову у Поречу. У њега је учио Мицко Крстић, познати наш усташ и четнички војвода ...

  3. ^ Aleksa Jovanović Kodža (1930). Четнички споменик, Војвода Мицко, живот и рад. Skoplje.
  4. ^ a b c d Hadži-Vasiljević 1928, p. 8.
  5. ^ a b c Hadži-Vasiljević 1928, p. 9.
  6. ^ a b Hadži-Vasiljević 1928, p. 10.
  7. ^ Hadži-Vasiljević 1928, p. 10, Jovanović 1937, p. 237
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Đurić & Mijović 1993, p. 61.
  9. ^ a b c d Krakov 1990, p. 28.
  10. ^ Matica srpska (1992). Zbornik Matice srpske za istoriju 45–48 (in Serbian). Novi Sad: Matica srpska. p. 55.
  11. ^ Koliševski, Lazar (1962). Aspekti na makedonskoto prašanje (in Macedonian). Kultura. p. 499.
  12. ^ Georgevitch, T. R. (1918). Macedonia. Forgotten Books. p. 183. ISBN 9781440065194.
  13. ^ a b Đorđe N. Lopičić (2007). Konzularni odnosi Srbije: (1804-1918). Zavod za udžbenike. p. 207. ISBN 978-86-17-34399-4.

    Најбо- љи пример је војвода Мицко Крстић из Пореча, који је био осуђен на 20 година затвора, али није хтео да се изјасни као Бугарин да би био обухваћен амнестојом и ослобоћен даљег издржавања казне.

  14. ^ "Мицко Крстевић: писма из битољског затвора (1897-1899)". Мешовита грађа.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Ilić, Vladimir (March 4, 2003). "Srpski četnici na početku dvadesetog veka (6): Pogibija na šupljem kamenu". Glas Javnosti.
  16. ^ "Прво јавно читање драме Надежде Петровић "Војвода Мицко Поречанин"". Влада Републике Србије.; Надежда Петровић (2005). Војвода Мицко Поречанин. Библиотека града Београда. ISBN 978-86-7191-071-2.

Sources[edit]