Panagrellus redivivus

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Panagrellus redivivus
Panagrellus redivivus Otago University Cold Stage.jpg
Observation of Panagrellus redivivus on a Zeiss microscope stage
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Nematoda
Class: Secernentea
Order: Rhabditida
Family: Panagrolaimidae
Genus: Panagrellus
Species: P. redivivus
Binomial name
Panagrellus redivivus
(Linnaeus, 1767)

Chaos redivivum Linnaeus, 1767

The free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus (sour paste nematode,[2] or beer mat nematode from its occurrence in constantly moist felt beer mats),[1] is known to many aquarium enthusiasts and fish keepers as the micro-worm. It is a tiny roundworm used as the first food for larger kinds of newly-hatched fish, such as larval common carp.[3] The microworm is widely used in aquaculture as food for a variety of fish and crustacean species.

One of thirteen currently recognized species of Panagrellus, P. redivivus is about 50 μm in diameter and just over 1 mm in length, barely visible to the naked eye. Subsisting on yeast, it is easily cultured at home on a substrate of flour paste[4] or porridge inoculated with dry yeast.[5] Females reach maturity in about three days and deliver live young rather than eggs, as most nematodes prduce.

The microworm has been used in genetic analysis studies, but not nearly as universally as its relative, Caenorhabditis elegans.


  1. ^ a b Ferris, H. 2009. "The beer mat nematode, Panagrellus redivivus: A study of the connectedness of scientific discovery". J. Nematode Morphol. Syst., 12 (1): 19-25.
  2. ^ Stock, S., and Nadler, N. 2006. "Morphological and molecular characterization of Panagrellus spp. (Cephalobina: Panagrolaimidae): taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships". Nematology, 8(6), 921-938.
  3. ^ Schlechtriem, C., M. Ricci, U. Focken and K. Becker (2004). "The suitability of the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus as live food for first-feeding fish larvae". Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 20 (3): 161. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0426.2004.00542.x. 
  4. ^ Linnaeus identified the species in library or book paste.
  5. ^ Worm Culture Information

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