Mikołaj Krzysztof "the Orphan" Radziwiłł
|Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł|
August 2, 1549|
|Died||February 28, 1616
|Spouse(s)||Elżbieta "Halaszka" Eufemia Wiśniowiecka|
|Children||with Elżbieta "Halaszka" Eufemia Wiśniowiecka:
Jan Jerzy Radziwiłł
Albrycht Władysław Radziwiłł
Zygmunt Karol Radziwiłł
Aleksander Ludwik Radziwiłł
|Parent(s)||Mikołaj "the Black" Radziwiłł
Prince Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł[n 1] (1549–1616), better known in English the anglicized form Nicholas Christopher Radziwil or Radziwill and nicknamed "the Orphan" (Polish: Sierotka), was a Polish-Lithuanian nobleman (szlachcic), Ordynat of Nieśwież from 1586, Court Marshal of Lithuania from 1569, Grand Marshal of Lithuania from 1579, castellan of Trakai from 1586, voivode of Trakai Voivodeship from 1590, voivode of Vilnius Voivodeship from 1604 and governor of Šiauliai. After the treaty at Vienna in 1515 all Radziwills were Imperial Princes and he held a position as Imperial Prince of the Holy Roman Empire.
He was nicknamed "the Orphan" ("Sierotka"), in his infancy, by the king Sigismundus Augustus (while his parents were still alive).
He married Halaszka Eufemia Wiśniowiecka on November 24, 1584, a Calvinist who under his influence too converted to Roman Catholicism.
Unlike many other members of Radziwiłł family he tried to stay away from politics, especially from the dynastic clan politics of some of other Radziwiłłs like Janusz Radziwiłł; he also supported the forces loyal to the king and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Zebrzydowski Rebellion, a szlachta's confederatio threatening the king. He attempted to convince the confederates to surrender without unnecessary bloodshed.
Like other members of the Radziwiłłs family, he couldn't escape the political ambitions of his family, and when needed, he would support it. He campaigned for, successfully, for a royal pardon for his cousin Janusz, one of the organisers of the Rokosz. However, he also refused to support the Krzysztof 'Piorun' Radziwiłł, whose conflict with another powerful family threatened to plunge the Grand Duchy into a civil war.
Mikołaj became famous for a vivid account of his eventful pilgrimage to the Holy Land published in Latin in 1601 and later translated into Polish. During his voyage he visited not only Palestine, but also Syria, Egypt, Crete, Cyprus, Italy, and Greece. Robert Burton while on the subject of St. Elmo's fire wrote of this voyage in his Anatomy of Melancholy: "Radzivilius, the Polonian duke, calls this apparition, Sancti Germani sidus; and saith moreover that he saw the same after in a storm, as he was sailing, 1582, from Alexandria to Rhodes".
While in Rome, he met Piotr Skarga and Stanislaus Hosius, who convinced him to convert from Calvinism to Catholicism, as later did his other brothers, many upon his insistence. He was also known for his cultural and charity sponsorships. He was a founder of many cloisters, hospitals and churches. One of the chapels in the Jesuit church in Nieśwież (now Nesvizh), founded by Mikołaj Krzysztof, would become the family's mausoleum for the Radziwiłłs, serving them for the next two hundred and a half centuries. In Nieśwież, which became his seat, he also built a fortified castle. He was a patron of artists and scientists; for example he supported the works of cartographers such as Tomasz Makowski.
- "News". Radio Belarus. Retrieved 2010-10-10.
- Peter Paul Bajer Short history of the Radziwill Family
- Radziwiłł, Mikołaj Krzystof (Nicolaus Christophorus Radzivilus) (1601), Hierosolymitana Peregrinatio [A Jerusalem Trip], Braniewo (Brunsberga): Georg Schönfels (Georgius Schonfels). (Latin)
- Podróż do Ziemi Świętej, Syrii i Egiptu 1582-1584 (The trip to Holy Land, Syria and Egypt 1582-1584).
Karpluk M., J. Pirożyński O nieuwiarowaniu śmierci - rękopiśmienna relacja świadka ostatnich dni Elżbiety z Szydłowieckich Radziwiłłowej / / Miscellanea Staropolskie. T. Sixth Wrocław, 1990. S. 84.
Michael Gurin . Nicholas Christopher Radziwill / / The Golden Horde: The Encyclopedia. The 3 tons / red. GP Pasha and others. Volume 2: Cadet Corps - Jackiewicz. - Minsk: Belarusian Encyclopedia, 2005. S. 494.
Shyshygina-Potocki K. Shults and Radziwill. Mn.: "Belarus", 2007.
Chachaj M. Zagraniczna edukacja Radziwiłłów od początku XVI do połowy XVII wieku. Lublin, 1995. S. Thirty-second.
Z. Pietrzyk «Tylem się w Strazburku nauczył ...». Studia Mikołaja Krzysztofa Radziwiłła Sierotki w Strasburgu w latach 1563-1564 / / Odrodzenie i reformacja w Polsce. T. Forty-first - Warszawa, 1997. S. 159-162.
Chachaj M. Zagraniczna edukacja Radziwiłłów od początku XVI do połowy XVII wieku. Lublin, 1995. S. 18, 20-21.
T. Kempa Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł Sierotka (1549-1616). Wojewoda wileński. Warszawa, two thousand S. 32-33.
By: Chachaj M. Zagraniczna edukacja Radziwiłłów od początku XVI do połowy XVII wieku. - Lublin, 1995. S. 17-18.
For example: Archiwum domu Radziwiłłów. S. Forty-fourth MK Radziwill to K. Radzvilla. White, 11 April 1596.
Testament Mikołaja Radziwiłła ZW. Czarnym wojewody wileńskiego. / / Augustyniak U. Testamenty ewangelików reformawanych w Wielkim Księstwie Litewskim. Warszawa, 1992. S. 19-20.
Merczyng H. Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł Sirotka i jego przyjęcie katolicyzmu w r. 1567. / / Przegląd Historyczny. R. Twelfth 1911. S. 4-5.
T. Kempa Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł Sierotka (1549-1616). Wojewoda wileński. Warszawa, two thousand S. 42-43.
Michael Gurin . Nicholas Christopher Radziwill / / The Golden Horde: The Encyclopedia. The 3 tons / red. GP Pasha and others. Volume 2: Cadet Corps - Jackiewicz. - Minsk: Belarusian Encyclopedia, 2005. S. 495.
Шышыгіна-Патоцкая К. Нясвіж і Радзівілы. Мн.: «Беларусь», 2007. — 240 с.: іл. ІSBN 978-985-01-0740-4.
Энцыклапедыя гісторыі Беларусі. У 6 т. Т. 6. Кн. 1: Пузыны — Усая / Беларус. Энцыкл.; Рэдкал.: Г. П. Пашкоў (галоўны рэд.) і інш.; Маст. Э. Э. Жакевіч. — Мн.: БелЭн, 2001. — 591 с.: іл. ISBN 985-11-0214-8.
The Golden Horde: The Encyclopedia. The 3 tons / red. GP Pasha and others. Volume 2: Cadet Corps - Jackiewicz. - Minsk: Belarusian Encyclopedia, 2005. - 788 s.: Il. ISBN 985-11-0378-0.
Kempa T. Mikołaj Radziwiłł Sierotka (1549—1616), wojewoda wileński. — Warszawa, 1999. ISBN 8386951524.