Mosques and shrines of Mosul

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The mosques and shrines of Mosul, Iraq are of varied ages, the oldest being the Umayyad Mosque from 640 AD.

The following mosques and shrines were destroyed by Islamic State (also known as ISIS or ISIL) in 2014, after their takeover of the city: Prophet Yunus; Prophet Jerjis; Mashad Yahya Abul Kassem; Prophet Seth; Prophet Daniel; Hamou Qado.

The Umayyad Mosque[edit]

The Umayyad Mosque was the first in the area occupied by modern day Iraq. It was built in 640 AD by Utba bin Farqad Al-Salami after he captured Mosul during the reign of Caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab.

The Great Mosque at Nur al-Din[edit]

The Great Mosque was originally built under Nur al-Din al-Zangi Atabeg of Damascus, who occupied Mosul in 1170 after taking control from his brother Saif el Din Ghazi bin Qutb al-Din al Zingi. It may have been a development of a previous Mosque.[1] All that remains from this complex are the minaret, two mihrabs, an inscribed marble slab, and some stucco decoration.

The elaborate 52′ (15.5m) brick minaret that leans like the Tower of Pisa is called Al-Hadba (The Humped).

The Great (Nuriddin) Mosque[edit]

The Great Mosque was built by Nuriddin Zanki in 1172 AD next to the Umayyad Mosque. Ibn Battuta (the great Moroccan traveller) found a marble fountain there and a mihrab (the niche that indicates the direction of Mecca) with a Kufic inscription.

The Mosque of the Prophet Yunus (Jonah)[edit]

Prophet Yunus Mosque

On one of the two most prominent mounds of Nineveh's ruins, rose the Mosque of the prophet Yunus (known as Jonah in English translations of the Bible) the son of Amittai. The mosque, which earlier was an Assyrian Church, was believed to be the burial place of Yunus. It is also where King Esarhaddon had once built a palace.

This shrine on the site of a Christian church was a stone's throw from the built-up walls and gates of Nineveh. In the middle of the mosque stood a sepulcher, covered with a Persian carpet of silk and silver, and at the four corners, great copper candlesticks with wax tapers, besides several lamps and ostrich eggshells that hung down from the roof. A whale's tooth, appropriate to Jonah's well-known adventure at sea, was said to be preserved there.

It was one of the most important mosques in Mosul and one of the few historic mosques in the east side of the city.

On July 24, 2014, the building was blown up by Islamic State.[2] A security source, who kept his identity anonymous, told the Iraq-based al-Sumaria News that ISIS militants "seized control of the mosque completely."[3] The militants then closed all doors and prevented worshipers from entering to pray. They then detonated explosives, destroying the mosque and damaging several nearby houses. They stated “the mosque had become a place for apostasy, not prayer.”[2]

The Mujahidi Mosque[edit]

The Mujahidi Mosque dates back to 12th century AD, and is distinguished for its beautiful dome and elaborately wrought mihrab.

The Mosque of the Prophet Jerjis (Saint George)[edit]

The Mosque of the Prophet Jerjis is believed by Muslims to be the burial place of the prophet Jerjis (known in Christianity as Saint George). It is made of marble with beautiful reliefs and was last renovated in 1393. The explorer Ibn Jubair mentioned it in the 12th century, and it is believed also to embrace the tomb of Al-Hur bin Yousif. The court of the ruler at the time of Ummaveet (Bany ummayya) is thought to be not far from this mosque.

On July 27, 2014, the Prophet Jerjis Mosque was destroyed by Islamic State.[4]

Mashad Yahya Abul Kassem[edit]

On the right bank of the Tigris, it is known for its conical dome, decorative brickwork and calligraphy engraved in Mosul blue marble, 13th century.

On July 23, 2014, the Mashad Yahya Abul Kassem shrine was destroyed by Islamic State.[5]

Qara Serai (The Black Palace)[edit]

Qara Serai are the remnants of the 13th-century palace of Sultan Badruddin Lu'lu'. It was the court of the ruler of Mosul at the time of Uthmaneets. The Turkish meaning of the name is "black palace". The place was famous at the time when the Jaleeli dynasty ruled Mosul early in the 18th century; the Persians invaded Kurdistan and progressed towards Mosul, besieging the city. However, the city resisted and after a long siege, Nader Shah decided to turn back without invading the city. Command and control was based here.

Prophet Seth Shrine[edit]

A shrine to Seth existed in the city but was destroyed on July 26, 2014 by Islamic State.[6]

Prophet Daniel Shrine[edit]

A Tomb attributed to the Prophet Daniel was destroyed in July 2014 by Islamic State.[7][8]

Hamou Qado Mosque[edit]

An Ottoman-era mosque in Mosul's central square and dating from 1881 was destroyed by Islamic State, because it contained a tomb that was visited every Thursday and Friday by local Muslims.[9][10]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://cchag.org/html/09476/iraq05-047.html
  2. ^ a b "ISIS destroys Mosque of Biblical Jonah, Prophet Yunus". IraqiNews.com. 24 July 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014. 
  3. ^ "ISIS militants blow up Prophet Jonas’ tomb in Iraq". RT. 25 July 2014. 
  4. ^ "Islamic State destroys ancient Mosul mosque, the third in a week". theguardian.com. 27 July 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014. 
  5. ^ "ISIL destroys Mashad Yahya Abul Kassem mosque located west of Mosul". iraqinews.com. 23 July 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2014. 
  6. ^ July 2014 "ISIS destroys Prophet Sheth shrine in Mosul". Al Arabiya News. 26 July 2014. 
  7. ^ Clark, Heather (27 July 2014). "Muslim Militants Blow Up Tombs of Biblical Jonah, Daniel in Iraq". Christian News Network. Retrieved 28 July 2014. Al-Sumaria News also reported on Thursday that local Mosul official Zuhair al-Chalabi told the outlet that ISIS likewise “implanted explosives around Prophet Daniel’s tomb in Mosul and blasted it, leading to its destruction.” 
  8. ^ Hafiz, Yasmine. "ISIS Destroys Jonah's Tomb in Mosul, Iraq, As Militant Violence Continues". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 28 July 2014. The tomb of Daniel, a man revered by Muslims as a prophet though unlike Jonah, he is not mentioned in the Quran, has also been reportedly destroyed. Al-Arabiya reports that Zuhair al-Chalabi, a local Mosul official, told Al-Samaria News that “ISIS implanted explosives around Prophet Daniel’s tomb in Mosul and blasted it, leading to its destruction." 
  9. ^ ISIS destroys beloved mosque in central Mosul
  10. ^ Iraq: Isis destroys 19th century Ottoman mosque in central Mosul