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Muhammerah or Muhammira ("The Crimson, The Red") were Mazdaki groups such as the followers of al-Muqanna, the Khurramites and the Kūl’īyyah. The members of these groups were active in region of modern Khorramshahr in Khorramshahr County, Khuzestan Province, Iran.
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Turkic Muslim sects included followers of Bû’ Müslim’îyye, Muhammerah, and Ishâk at-Türk’îyye madh'habs, all of them were the extension of “Rizâm’îyyah”, “Riyâh’îyyah” and “Râvend’îyyah” madh'habs. All these madh'habs had a shared doctrines of a belief in the incarnation belief of their Imams. Like “Mukhtâr’îyyah”, “Hâshim’îyyah” and “Khashabiyya Shia”, they were all from the Ghulat Shia madh'hab of Keysân’îyyah defending the godness of Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, another son of Ali from his wife Khawlah bint Ja'far.
- Mustafa Öz, Madh'habs Tarihi ve Terimleri Sözlüğü, Ensar Yayıncılık, İstanbul, 2011. (Keysân’îyye (Muhtâr’îyye/Keysân’îyyet-ûl-Hullas, Hâşim’îyye (Harb’îyye, Muâv’îyye/Cennâh’îyye (Hâris’îyye), Beyân’îyye), Râvend’îyye (Rizâm’îyye (Bû’ Müslim’îyye (Sinbâd’îyye, Berkûk’îyye, Havâl’îyye), Muhammira (Mukannaʿîyye, Hürremdîn’îyye (Bâbek’îyye, Mazyâr’îyye, Qizilbashs), Kûl’îyye), Ishâk at-Türk’îyye), Riyâh’îyye), Kebr’îyye) madh'habs).
- Roger M. Savory (Source: Abdülbaki Gölpınarlı), Encyclopaedia of Islam, "Kizil-Bash", Online Edition 2005.