Myofascial pain syndrome
|Myofascial pain syndrome|
|Classification and external resources|
|ICD-10||M79.1 – Myalgia (excl. myositis)|
|ICD-9-CM||729.1 – Myalgia and myositis, unspecified|
Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), also known as chronic myofascial pain (CMP), is a syndrome characterized by chronic pain in multiple myofascial trigger points ("knots") and fascial (connective tissue) constrictions. It can appear in any body part.
Characteristic features of a myofascial trigger points include: focal point tenderness, reproduction of pain upon trigger point palpation, hardening of the muscle upon trigger point palpation, pseudo-weakness of the involved muscle, referred pain, and limited range of motion following approximately 5 seconds of sustained trigger point pressure.
Myofascial pain is pain in muscles or fascia (a type of connective tissue that surrounds muscles). It can occur in distinct, isolated areas of the body. Because any muscle or fascia in the body may be affected, this may cause a variety of localized symptoms.
Generally speaking, the muscular pain is steady, aching, and deep. Depending on the case and location the intensity can range from mild discomfort to excruciating and "lightning-like".} Knots may be visible or felt beneath the skin. The pain does not resolve on its own, even after typical first-aid self-care such as ice, heat, and rest.
The causes of MPS are not fully documented or understood. At least one cause is ruled out: "The theory of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) caused by trigger points (TrPs) ... has been refuted. This is not to deny the existence of the clinical phenomena themselves, for which scientifically sound and logically plausible explanations based on known neurophysiological phenomena can be advanced." Some systemic diseases, such as connective tissue disease, can cause MPS. Poor posture and emotional disturbance might also instigate or contribute to MPS.
Massage therapy using trigger-point release techniques may be effective in short-term pain relief. Physical therapy involving gentle stretching and exercise is useful for recovering full range of motion and motor coordination. Once the trigger points are gone, muscle strengthening exercise can begin, supporting long-term health of the local muscle system.
A systematic review concluded that dry needling for the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome in the lower back appeared to be a useful adjunct to standard therapies, but that clear recommendations could not be made because the published studies were small and of low quality.
Trigger point injections using local anaesthetic such as lidocaine is a controversial treatment with many anaesthetists not willing to perform them due to their belief of the technique being unable to provide relief or due to little knowledge of myofascial pain syndrome and how to perform TPIs. The treatment has been found effective in regard to patients finding longer term relief after a few sessions or regular TPIs providing relief from pain substantial to reduce the use of pain medications like oxycodone or tramadol.
Gentle, sustained stretching exercises within a comfortable range of motion have been shown to decrease pain thresholds. Regular, non-intense activity is also encouraged.
- Bennett, Robert (2007). "Myofascial pain syndromes and their evaluation". Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology. 21 (3): 427–45. doi:10.1016/j.berh.2007.02.014. PMID 17602992.
- Starlanyl & Copeland 2001, p. 28.
- Mayo Clinic Staff (3 Dec 2009). "Myofascial pain syndrome: Symptoms". Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- "A critical evaluation of the trigger point phenomenon". Rheumatology (Oxford). 2015 Mar;54(3):392-9. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keu471. Epub 2014 Dec 3.
- Gerwin, Robert (2005). "Differential Diagnosis of Trigger Points". Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain. 12 (3): 23–8. doi:10.1300/J094v12n03_04.[dead link]
- Fricton, James R.; Kroening, Richard; Haley, Dennis; Siegert, Ralf (1985). "Myofascial pain syndrome of the head and neck: A review of clinical characteristics of 164 patients". Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology. 60 (6): 615–23. doi:10.1016/0030-4220(85)90364-0. PMID 3865133.
- Peñas, César Fernández-de-las; Campo, Mónica Sohrbeck; Fernández Carnero, Josué; Miangolarra Page, Juan Carlos (Jan 2005). "Manual therapies in myofascial trigger point treatment: a systematic review". Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 9 (1): 27–34. doi:10.1016/j.jbmt.2003.11.001.
- Starlanyl & Copeland 2001, p. 221.
- Harris, R. E.; Clauw, Daniel J. (2002). "The Use of complementary medical therapies in the management of myofascial pain disorders". Current Pain and Headache Reports. 6 (5): 370–4. doi:10.1007/s11916-002-0078-6. PMID 12357980.
- Furlan, Andrea D; Van Tulder, Maurits W; Cherkin, Dan; Tsukayama, Hiroshi; Lao, Lixing; Koes, Bart W; Berman, Brian M (2005). Furlan, Andrea D, ed. "Acupuncture and dry-needling for low back pain". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD001351. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001351.pub2. PMID 15674876.
- Starlanyl & Copeland 2001, p. 230.
- Starlanyl & Copeland 2001, p. 232.
- Borg-Stein, Joanne; Simons, David (March 2002). "Myofascial Pain". Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 83 (1): S40–S47. doi:10.1053/apmr.2002.32155.